When God - be glorified - sent Mohammed to the people of Mecca to warn them against the idolatry and invite them to worship God Most Gracious alone without associate, son or peer .. they refused to listen to him at the start and they opposed him .. some people in Mecca believed and were persecuted.
Then God commanded him to emigrate to Medina, and there many people believed in addition to the emigrants from Mecca.

In Medina there were many Jews, and he made a treaty with them: because they were supposed to worship God alone according to the First Commandment .. a little number of Jews believed, and most of them started to oppose and contradict Mohammed and the Islam religion .. and they broke their treaty with him .. and instead they confirmed the idolaters of Mecca against him in spite of that he worshiped God alone and rejected the idols .. and in spite of that the Quran confirms the previous prophets and confirms the Tablets and the Ten Commandments and the Torah of Moses.

Mohammed and the Arab were ignorant about the history and details of the Children of Israel, so God started to acquaint him and the believers about the disobedience of Jews and their rebellion against God and His messenger Moses and their opposing all the prophets of God before Mohammed.

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God – be glorified – said in the Quran 2: 27, which means:

(Those who break God's covenant after ratifying it,

and sever that [kinship] which God ordered to be joined,

and make mischief in the earth [by sedition, road robbery and barring those who believe in Mohammed]:

Such are the losers [who lost themselves and their families: for that they exchanged Prosperity for Hell.]

The explanation:
>> (Those) Jews (who break God’s covenant after ratifying it) means: They break the covenant which they made with the previous prophets of God that they should not associate anything with God [in their worship], and that they should not kill the human being whom God prohibited his killing, and they should not commit adultery; but they did not hold fast with the covenant [i.e. they broke the covenant of God.]

>> (and sever that [kinship] which God ordered to be joined) means: They sever their relations with their relatives and kin.

>> (and make mischief in the earth) by making quarrels and hatred, and by road- robbery, and they try to drive-those who believed in Mohammed- out of faith.

>> (Such are the losers [who lost themselves and their families: for that they exchanged Prosperity for Hell.])