Soora 48


[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)


The meaning


More explanation

[2] 1. We have opened for you [Mohammed, by means of the Hudaybiyyah truce] a manifest gate [for entering into the Islam, so that people may convert in large numbers.] a


[3] 2. That God may forgive you [Mohammed, both] your past and new sins b, and complete His grace on you c, and guide you onto a straight way d.


[4] 3. And that God may help you with a mighty help [against your enemies.]


1 a Which is the truce between the Prophet and the associaters on the day of the Hudaybiyyah. It was a victory without fighting, and by means of that truce the associaters mixed with the Muslims, listened to their words and the Islam went into their hearts, and a large number of people embraced the Islam within three years, and so the general population of Muslims increased.




2 b i.e. the old and new sins.

The Prophet considered himself sinful and neglecting about the delivering of the message and propagating the call to the Islam; particularly when His saying be glorified was revealed in the Quran 5: 67, which means:

(O messenger, convey [to your people] what has been revealed to you from your Lord [but fear not;]

if you do it not, then you will not have conveyed His message [to people.])

Therefore, he considered himself neglecting, so he was embarrassed and depressed on account of this.

So His saying be glorified in the Quran 7: 2 was revealed:

([Mohammed, recite this] Book [: the Quran] revealed to you, and let there be no embarrassment in your breast as to it[s conveyance.])

It means: We will forgive you some of your neglect in the conveying and propagating the call, so let there be no embarrassment in your breast about that.

2 c By continuing the revelation of the sooras and ayat until the Quran is complete.

The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 5: 3, which means:

(Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor to you, and chosen for you, as religion, the Islam.)

2 d Which is the Islam religion: the religion of monotheism [or the exclusive devotion to God alone], in order that you may move on it and do not deviate from it.

The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 36: 3-4, which means:

(Surely, you [Mohammed] are one of the messengers. [Following] on a standard way.)

It means: on a straight way in which there is not any crookedness; it is the religion of monotheism [or the exclusive devotion to God alone], which does not incline: neither to Jews who worshipped the idols, nor to Christians who worshipped the Cross and the statue of Mary.



[5] 4. It is [God] Who sent down the 'tranquility and quieting' a into the hearts of the believers; that they might have more certainty of belief in addition to their certainty of belief b; for to God belong the hosts of the heavens c and the earth d; God is All-Knowing e, Most Wise f.


[6] 5. That He may admit [after death] the believers, men and women alike, into Gardens underneath [the trees of] which rivers flow; therein to dwell forever, and conceal their bad deeds [from the sight of souls]; that [admission, in the ethereal heavens] is in God's sight a mighty triumph.


[7] 6. And that [God] may chastise [after death] the hypocrites (men and women), and the associaters (men and women): those who think about God evil thoughts g; against them shall be the evil turn of fortune h, and moreover the wrath of God is against them, and He has cursed them i, and has prepared Hell for [punishing] them evil is [Hell] for a destination [in the Next Life.]


[8] 7. To God belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth j; God is All-Mighty k, Most Wise l.


4 a i.e. reassurance.

4 b On account of the revelations and the Prophets victories.

4 c His hosts of the heavens are the angels.

4 d His hosts of the earth are the microbes and the insects which carry the microbes; so if He intends to destroy a people, He sends on them the plague or another kind of fatal diseases, and so He terminates them within a short period.

4 e About the sins of His servants.

4 f In the way He deals with them.








6 g i.e. they think that God will not help His messenger Mohammed.

6 h It means: The Prophet will defeat the associaters, so that the hypocrites will lose and will be humiliated. It means: time will pass against them so as they will be destroyed.

6 i i.e. He removed them away from His mercy.






7 j So to destroy them is not difficult to Him.

7 k In His kingdom.

7 l With His servants.



[9] 8. [O prophet,] We have sent you as a witness [of your people],

a bearer of glad tidings [of Paradise for those who believe]

and a warner [of punishment for those who disbelieve.]


[Then God be glorified - explained about the purpose of such sending [of the Prophet], and He said:]

[10] 9. That you may believe in God and His messenger, and support [the messenger with words and action], and reverence God a, and that you may celebrate His praises [always] early and late in the day b.


[11] 10. Surely, those who swears allegiance c to you [Mohammed], swear allegiance only to God [because it is He Who has sent you.] d

The [surplus-] hand of God e is above their [surplus-] hands f.

So whosoever [afterwards] breaks his oath, breaks it only to his soul's hurt g; while whosoever keeps his covenant with God h, on him will He bestow immense reward [in the Next Life.]



9 a This is like His saying be glorified in the Quran 71: 13, which means:

("What ails you that you hope not for [the reward of] God [and so to humble yourselves in your worship before] His majesty")

9 b It means: you should always praise and glorify God, and it is not meant that you should glorify Him at morning and evening only.












10 c To embrace the Islam religion, and to help you against your enemies and to comply with your commands.

10 d It was the Ridhwan [or Good Pleasure] Swearing of Allegiance at Hudaybiyyahh.

10 e By guiding them.

10 f By helping you.

The hand here implies the grace, surplus and favor.

The meaning: The favor of God on them (by guiding them to the Islam religion), is greater than their help for you.

10 g Because he will lose in his Next Life.

10 h By helping you and complying with your commands.



[12] 11. Those rural Arabs [round about the Medina city a], who were left behind [and did not go with you], will say to you [Mohammed, when you will return from Hudaybiyyahh]:

"Our possessions and families distracted us [from going forth with you]; so ask [Gods] forgiveness b for us!"

They say with their tongues c that which is not in their hearts.

Say [to them]: "Who then can avail you anything against God, if He desires harm for you [even when you are at your homes], or if He desires profit for you [even when you are in war]?" d

But God is Well-acquainted of all that you do [so He informs us about your secrets and acts.]


[13] 12. But you deemed that the messenger and the believers would never return to their families [once again, and they all would be killed and taken captives],

and [by Satan] this was made fair-seeming in your hearts e,

and you thought such bad thought [of the annihilation of the messenger and the believers],

and you were a people [void of reason and wisdom.]


[14] 13. Whoso believes not in God and His messenger We have prepared for the disbelievers [in God and His messenger] a blazing [fire.]


[15] 14. To God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth f;

He forgives to whomsoever He will g; and He chastises whomsoever He will h;

God is Most Forgiving [to those who repent], Most Merciful [to those who regret.]


11 a Like the tribe of the Children of Lihian and others, whom you, Mohammed, told to go forth with you, but they stayed behind.

11 b Concerning their staying behind; they said that out of their hypocrisy; so God be glorified disapproved their words, and He said:

11 c Words of apologies and asking forgiveness.

11 d The meaning: Say to them: You stayed behind and did not go with us, only for the fear of the killing, and you hoped that your staying behind would be more advantageous to you.

But anyhow if God intends to do you harm while you are at your homes, who then can avert such harm from you?

And if He intends to do you good and blessing, while you go forth to fight the enemy, who can then withhold such blessing from reaching you?

Therefore, your staying behind and refraining from going forth with us, was only due to your cowardice and weakness of belief.







12 e i.e. Satan made such imagination fair-seeming in your hearts.




















14 f He offers out of His possession to whomsoever He will.

14 g Who deserves the forgiveness.

14 h The one who deserves the chastisement.



[16] 15. Those who stayed behind' [and did not go with you to Hudaybiyah] will say, when you [will come back to them from your campaign, and you will intend to] set forth to take the spoils [of Khaybar], will say: "Let us follow you [in your campaign to Khaybar!]" a

They thus intend to change the word of God b.

Say: "You will not follow us; God has already declared [this] beforehand." c

Then they will say: "You surely do envy us. d "

In fact they have not understood [the truth and that to which you invite them] but only a little [bit.]


[17] 16. Say to the Bedouins 'who stayed behind' [and did not go with you to Hudaybiyah]:

"You shall be invited [in the future, as a trial,] against a people having mighty valour e: to fight them, or they surrender f.

If you then obey [the Prophet to fight them], God will give you a fair recompense g;

But if you turn away, as did you before turn away [from going to Hudaybiyah], He will chastise you with a painful chastisement [because of your repeating of the disobedience.]"


15 a That is because when the believers went back from Hudaybiyah with concluding the truce there, God promised them to conquer Khaybar and that its spoils should be exclusive to those who attended Hudaybiyah; then when they returned to Medina and set forth to Hudaybiyah, those who stayed behind' said: Let us follow you [in your campaign to Khaybar.

15 b That He promised the spoils of Khaybar be exclusively to the attendants of Hudaybiyah; and they wanted to share with them in the spoils.

15 c i.e. God had foretold about you in Hudaybiyah before Khaybar and before have we returned to you from our campaign.

15 d Lest we should share with you in the spoils; therefore you said these words.

So God be glorified explained that it is not like what they said:









16 e i.e. the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqief of the Ta'if.

16 f Afterwards, the Prophet fought them following the conquest of Mecca, then they converted.

16 g That is the war spoils in the life of the World, in addition to Paradise in the Next Life.



[18] 17. There is no blame on the blind, nor on the lame, nor on the sick patient [for refraining from fighting.]

Whosoever obeys God and His messenger, He will admit him into Gardens beneath [the trees of] which rivers flow.

But whosoever turns away [from obeying God and obeying His messenger], He will chastise him with a painful chastisement [in the Next Life.]


[19] 18. God has been well-pleased with the believers when they were swearing fealty to you [Mohammed] under the tree a, and He knew what [sincerity and fulfillment of their pledge] was in their hearts, so He sent down the 'tranquility and quieting' b upon them, and rewarded them with a victory that will come soon c,


[20] 19. And many spoils for them to take [from Khaibar d]; God is ever All-Mighty e, Most Wise f.


[21] 20. God promises you [believers] many spoils that you will gain [in the futureg], and has hastened on this [booty of Khaibar] for you, and has withheld the hands of men [: the allies of the Jews h] from you.

So that the [battle of Khaibar] may become a sign for the believers [indicating the truthfulness of Mohammed i], and that [God] may guide you to a standard path [in the future to capture many countries j.]


[22] 21. And another [city: Mecca] you [believers] have not yet conquered [but you will conquer within a short time]; God comprehends it [with His knowledge]; for God is Most Powerful over all things.















18 a It implies: the pledge of allegiance of Hudaybiyyahh; also called, according to this aya, the pledge of allegiance of the good pleasure.

The good pleauser of God about them is the best reputation for them in the life of the World, as will Paradise be for them in the Next Life.

18 b Or the reassurance.

18 c Which is the conquest of Khaibar, after their return to Medina.




19 d Which was a land with buildings, date-palms and plants; and the Prophet distributed it among them.

19 e In His kingdom.

19 f In His creation.





20 g In the time of the Prophet and after him.

20 h That is because the tribes of Ghatafan and Bani Asad were the allies of the Jews; so when the Prophet besieged Khaibar, these two tribes arose to help the Jews, but God cast terror in their hearts, and they desisted from their plan.

20 i For he had foretold you that you would capture it, then it was fulfilled as had he foretold.

20 j To guide their peoples to the way of the truth and to the Islam religion.



[23] 22. If the disbelievers [of Mecca] had fought you [at Hudaybiyyahh a], they would then have turned their backs [in flight], and would have found neither patron [to aid them] nor helper [to help them against you.]


[24] 23. Such was God's way [of dealing with His servants] which passed away before [for the past nations b]; and you will never find any changing of the way of God['s dealing c.]


[25] 24. And it is [God] Who withheld their hands from you d, and withheld your hands from them e, in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them f.

God is All-Seeing of what you do.


[26] 25. It was they who disbelieved and barred you from the Inviolable Mosque [on the day of Hudaibiah], and [barred] the 'offering' g, detained so as not to reach [Mecca:] its place [of sacrifice.] h

If it had not been for some believing men and some believing women i whom you know not j, lest you should trample [: killing] them, and thus you incur ' guilt k and disgrace l ' for [killing] them while you were unaware;

that God may admit into His mercy [and guide, to the religion of the Islam, those among the associaters] whom He please m;

had these [believers among the Meccans] gradually departed n [from Mecca], then We would have chastised those who disbelieve among the [people of Mecca] with a painful chastisement.


[27] 26. When the disbelievers [of Mecca] set up haughtiness in their hearts, [like] the haughtiness [of their fathers in the time] of the [pre-Islam] 'ignorance' o.

So God sent down His 'tranquility and quietness' upon His messenger and the believers p,

and made them uphold the 'word of piety' [that is their saying: 'Compliance'] q, of which [the Meccans] were in fact more worthy and meet for [saying it r.]

God is All-Knowing of everything.s


22 a And had not made peace with you.




23 b That He helped His messengers [or apostles] against their enemies.

23 c Of helping His messengers [or apostles.]




24 d By casting terror in their hearts, so they agreed about the truce.

24 e It means: And He withheld your hands from them, so that they would approach you and meet with you and so they would hear your words and recognize the way of the truth; and because of the truce, you entered the valley of Mecca secured.

24 f By means of fighting in the battle of Badr, and the other battles which occurred between you and them.




25 g Which are the cattle to be slaughtered in the pilgrimage on the day of the feast. The Prophet drove seventy of the cattle with him; until he reached the place called Zul Hulaifa, when he put something on the necks of the camels, and patched them with blood patches as indication that they are the offerings to the Inviolable House at Mecca; and he wore the clothes of the Ihram for the Omrah [which is the visiting of the Inviolable House of God at Mecca at times other than the time of the pilgrimage], until he reached to the Hudaybiyyahh.

The associaters prevented him, then the truce settled between the two parties.

Then when the truce settled they sacrificed the cattle.

25 h So such offerings of the cattle were prevented by the associaters to proceed forward, but should return to where it came from. It means: It was prevented from entering Mecca; because the offerings of the 'Umrah (or the visitation to the House of God at Mecca) must be sacrificed at Mecca and not at any other place; as should the offerings of the pilgrimage be sacrificed at Mina.

25 i He means by that the weak [of the believers] who were at Mecca, among the associaters.

25 j By person, because of their mixing with the associaters.

25 k On account of killing those who were like them in belief.

25 l The disgrace will be from the associaters who would say: They killed those who followed them and believed in their prophet.

25 m So that He guides whom He please, and such one would convert; and that was after the truce.

25 n Their departing from Mecca should be gradual and in different directions and different dates, lest the people of Mecca might know about them and pursue after them so as to return them back to it with beating and hurting.




26 o i.e. like the habit of their fathers in the time of the pre-Islam ignorance: their habit was that they should not submit themselves or comply to anyone.

This is because the people of Mecca said:

Mohammed and his companions killed our fathers and brothers, and in addition they want to come into our homes; so the Arab would say they came into our homes in spite of our will. By the Lat and Uzza [: their idols!] They shall not come in.

26 p i.e. He sent down the reassurance on them, and removed their fear by means of the Hudaybiyyahh truce.

26 q It means: He made them obedient to their messenger, when he said to them: Go back to Medina, even after they intended to carry out the 'Umrah (or the visitation to the House of God at Mecca), and they complied with his command and said: Compliance and did not insist to go into Mecca.

26 r It means: The people of Mecca were more worthy to say to the Prophet: Compliance if he commands them to something, because they were his cousins, kindred and the people of his home town, and he himself was their chief, wise man, and one of their nobles and consultants.

Therefore, they were more worthy, than others are, to accept his invitation and comply with his command before the people of other cities and even before the people of Medina.

26 s So He made the Hudaybiyyahh truce beneficial to the believers; in order that their power would increase, their religion would prevail and their multitude would increase.



[The Prophet salam to him saw in his dream that he entered Mecca together with his companions in order to perform the pilgrimage, and he told his companions about his dream.

Then when they were prevented from the pilgrimage, and the truce was agreed upon by the two parties, some of the Muslims objected to the Prophet, and said: Hadnt you promised us to enter Mecca for the pilgrimage, then why could they have prevented us from entering it!?

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[28] 27. God has fulfilled the vision for His messenger in truth. You shall indeed enter the Inviolable Mosque, if God will, secure, [having your hair] shaven and cut [after the pilgrimage], not fearing [of your enemies.]

But He knew that which you know not, and has appointed before that a near victory [next year.] a





27 a The meaning: Had you entered Mecca this year, you would not have entered it secure and without fighting, but there should have been fighting between you and the associaters; so that your number would have decreased and your injury would have been more, and you would have entered it fearful of your enemy.

But God be glorified softened their hearts, in order that they may yield for the peace-making, so that your number will increase and you will be more powerful.

Anyhow, next year you will enter Mecca secured, shaving and cutting your hair of the head for completing the 'Umrah (or the visitation to the House of God at Mecca), according to the conditions agreed upon between you and the associaters out of the people of Mecca.



[29] 28. It is He [: God] Who has sent His messenger [: Mohammed] with the guidance and the religion of truth; that He may make [the Islam religion] prevail over all religions [in the time of the Mahdi: the Comforter].

And God is Sufficient to witness [that you are a messenger.]


[30] 29. Mohammed, the messenger of God, and those [believers] together with him are tough on the disbelievers, and merciful to each other. You [man] see them bowing and prostrating themselves [in prayers, most of the time], seeking Gods bounty and good-pleasure. Their [righteousness] appears obviously on their faces due to the effect of compliance [to God.] Such [describing them as being tough against the disbelievers] is their parable [and description written] in the Torah.

And their parable in the Gospel is: as a seedling that sends forth its sprouts, and the [sprouts] strengthen the [seedling]a and [all] grow stout [not bending to the ground] and the [stem of the plant] becomes thick, and the plant rises equally straight upon the stem b, delighting the sower c ; that by them [God] may exasperate the disbelievers d.

God promises those, among them who believe and do righteous deeds, e with forgiveness and a great reward [in the Next Life.]


29 a i.e. the sprouts which spring from the base of its stem, to grow around the original seedling, and to wrap round about it like the wrap or the wrapper, so that the plant will not bend to the ground.

29 b And the young becomes equal with the old in length and strength.

29 c With its growth and strength.

In fact, this is a parable which God said about Mohammed and his companions: so that the first seedling is Mohammed, and the planter is God be glorified. The sprouts are Mohammeds companions: the believers who surrounded him; they were weak and few at the start, just like the seedling of the plant at the start, then it will be stronger and will grow supported by its sprouts; so similarly, the believers: they strengthen each other until they become strong and had the authority.

29 d It means: God be glorified increased their number and power in order to exasperate the disbelievers.

29 e And keep up on his belief and on the obedience.

This, about the description of their strength and might against the disbelievers, is written in the New American Standard Bible, Book of Isaiah chapter 5: 26-30

He will also lift up a standard to the distant nation,

And will whistle for it from the ends of the earth;

And behold, it will come with speed swiftly.

27 No one in it is weary or stumbles,

None slumbers or sleeps;

Nor is the belt at its waist undone,

Nor its sandal strap broken.

28 Its arrows are sharp and all its bows are bent;

The hoofs of its horses seem like flint and its chariot wheels like a whirlwind.

29 Its roaring is like a lioness, and it roars like young lions;

It growls as it seizes the prey

And carries it off with no one to deliver it.

30 And it will growl over it in that day like the roaring of the sea.

If one looks to the land, behold, there is darkness and distress;

Even the light is darkened by its clouds.

[Which is almost like the Arabic Bible of the Jesuitical missionaries.]


And this is in King James Version of the Bible, Book of Isaiah 5: 26-30

26 And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly:

27 None shall be weary nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken:

28 Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind:

29 Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it.

30 And in that day they shall roar against them like the roaring of the sea: and if one look unto the land, behold darkness and sorrow, and the light is darkened in the heavens thereof.


By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 48 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)



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