Soora 28

 

[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)

 

The meaning

 

More explanation

[2] 1. Ta. Sien. Miem. [These abbreviated Arabic letters mean:]

Purity and Safety, O Mohammed!

[3] 2. Those are the revelations of the Book [: the Quran] that makes things clear. a

 

[4] 3. We recite to you, [Mohammed,] of the story of Moses and Pharaoh: a true account b, to [rehearse it to] a people c who believe [in it.]

 

[5] 4. Now Pharaoh d had exalted himself in the land [of Egypt] and had divided its people into sects [honoring some and subjecting others], abasing one party of them [: the Children of Israel], slaughtering their [newly born] sons, and sparing their women [to live]; for he was one of the workers of corruption.

 

[6] 5. Yet We liked to be Gracious to those [Children of Israel] that were abased in the land [of Egypt, by saving them from the torture of Pharaoh], and to make them religious leaders, and to make them the inheritors [of the possession of Pharaoh.]

 

[7] 6. And to establish them in the earth e; and to show Pharaoh and Haman [his minister] and their hosts that which they feared from them f.

 

2 a This has been interpreted in the Quran, chapter or soora 26.

 

 

3 b i.e. exactly true without any addition or subtraction.

3 c They are your companions.

 

 

4 d Pharaoh of Moses (the pharaoh of the Exodus) was Merneptah, the son of Ramses II who reigned in the year 1223 BC; he was the thirteenth son of Ramses II; he was a great military general during the reign of his father; among his titles were: ( the Great Priest of gods: Yetah-Sim, the highest General of the Army, the Royal Scribe and the Guard of the Temple Sacred Objects); he ruled Egypt for 19 years and 6 months; his age when he reigned was 58 years.

 

6 e With much crops, cattle and wealth.

6 f Concerning the disappearing of the sovereignty of Pharaoh and the authority of Haman.

Haman was a minister of Pharaoh.

And another Haman, appeared to Jews later on, who was a minister of King Xerxes; he was Haman son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, who was enraged against Jews because Mordecai the uncle of Esther did not respect Haman and did not kneel down or pay him honor, i.e. he did not kneel to salute him.
Therefore, Haman cheated King Xerxes and said to him: Jews are a wicked people who work mischief and seditions in the earth, so they should be killed and terminated from it.

The king said: "Do with them as you please." And he permitted him to kill them.
So when Esther the kings wife heard that, and he did not know she was a Jew, came and beg him for mercy and kindness, and said to him: Haman is our adversary, and he cheated you with such words.

The king then refrained from killing Jews, and commanded to hang Haman, so they hanged Haman on a gallows seventy-five feet high, he had prepared for hanging Mordecai, and it became his own, on which he was hanged in the citadel of Susa.

And the story is written in the Bible, the Book of Esther.

 

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[8] 7. And We revealed to Moses mother [saying:] "Suckle him a and, when you fear for him b, then cast him into the River [Nile of Egypt.]

And fear not c nor grieve d;

[for surely] We shall [soon] restore him to you, and shall [in the future] make him [one] of [Our] messengers." e

 

[9] 8. And Pharaoh's family picked him up f, that he might be for them an enemy and a [source of] grief g; surely, Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were guilty h.

 

[10] 9. Said Pharaoh's wife, 'He will be a source of delight and comfort to me and you [Pharaoh.] Slay him not; perchance he will profit us, or we will take him for a son.'

And they were not aware [that their destruction would be by his hands.]

 

7 a So she suckled him for three months.

7 b Lest Pharaoh may kill him.

7 c For him lest he may be drowned.

7 d For leaving him.

7 e Therefore, she cast him in the River Nile, an oblong papyrus basket coated with tar and pitch.

 

 

 

8 f From the Nile.

8 g When he would become forty years old.

8 h Concerning their program and adversity to the Children of Israel.

 

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[11] 10. And the heart of Moses mother became void a; and she would have declared about himb, had we not fortified her heart [with firmness c]; that she should be of the believers [in bringing him back to her.]

 

[12] 11. And she said to his sister [Mary]: "Trace him d."

So she observed him from aside [of them], and they perceived [her] not e.

 

[13] 12. And before [bringing him back to his mother] We forbade him foster mothers f; and [Mary his sister] said: "Shall I guide you to a family who will take charge g of him for you and will be sincere to [raise and look after] him?"

 

[14] 13. So We returned him to his mother that she might be delighted and have comfort [by seeing him], and that she might not grieve [about missing him], and that she might know that the promise of God is true h, but most of [people] know not. i

 

[15] 14. And when he attained his [thirty years age of] full strength, and reached his [forty years age of the mind] maturity, We offered to him authority [concerning the miracles] and knowledge [about the religion and the Torah.]

Thus do We reward those [of your nation, O Mohammed] who are kind.

 

10 a Because of the patience for leaving him.

10 b And would have said: Give me my son.

10 c So she became firm and did not declare about him.

 

 

 

 

11 d i.e. follow him and know about his outcome.

11 e And they did not know that she was Mary his sister.

 

 

 

 

 

12 f In order to bring him back to his mother; it means: We made him shrink back from and detest the breasts of women, and accept them not.

12 g Concerning his suckling and raising.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 h And that if He promises will not break His promise.

13 i Neither the consequences, nor the facts.

 

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[Then God be glorified mentioned an incident happened to Moses, before the authority and knowledge were given to him, and He said:]

[16] 15. And he entered the city [of Thebes a] at [noon] time when its people were unaware b, and found there two men fighting c: one was of his own party d, and the other was [a Copt: one] of his enemies.

Now the one that was of his party cried to him for help against the other that was of his enemies; so Moses struck him [on the heart] with his fist, and dispatched hime,

and [then he] said: "This [incident] is [some] of Satan's doing f; he is surely a manifest enemy [of the Children of Adam.]"

 

[17] 16. [At that time], he said: "My Lord, I have wronged myself [by killing this Copt]; forgive me [my fault!]"

So [His Lord] forgave him; for He is the Most Forgiving [for the repenting], the Most Merciful [to the regretting.]

 

[18] 17. He said: My Lord! since You have favored me [by concealing that I had slain him], I will never be g any supporter of the guilty [like my companion whom I helped yesterday.]" h

 

[19] 18. Next morning, he was in the city, fearful and vigilant i when, behold, the man who had sought his help the day before cried [again] for his help [against another Copt.] Moses said to him: "Truly, you are a manifest troublemaker." j

 

[20] 19. But when he [repeated his appeal for help, and Moses] would have assaulted [the Copt] who was an enemy to them both k, [the Copt] said:

"Moses, do you intend to slay me, even as you slew a living person yesterday? You only intend to be a tyrant in the land; you intend not to be a peace maker [between people.]"

 

[21] 20. Then came a man l from the furthest part of the city, walking quickly; he said: "Moses, the chief of the Copt are conspiring as for to slay you; therefore, go out [of the land of Egypt]; I am a sincere adviser to you."

 

[22] 21. He therefore went out of [the city of Pharaoh, aiming at Midian] fearful [of being killed] and vigilant [about their pursuing after him]; he said: "My Lord, save me from the people of the oppressors."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 a Which was the capital of Pharaoh, the ruins of which are still present till now.

15 b At the time when people had some sleep at afternoon, and it was Summer time, and people are in their homes because of the extreme heat. Moses had gone out of the city before that to see his relatives among the Children of Israel in the village nowadays known as Tell el-Yahudiya (Mound of the Jews). Then when he returned to the city of Thebes, he found two men

15 c i.e. beating each other.

15 d The Children of Israel.

15 e i.e. he killed him by one strike on his heart with his fist.

Then Moses turned right and left and did not see anyone, so he buried him in the sand, and went his way.

15 f For Satan enraged me, and I struck him and he died.

 

17 g After today, or from now on.

 

17 h That is because when Moses got out of the city next day, to see his relatives, they told him that the one, who asked his help the day before, had spread the killing story among the Children of Israel, and had not concealed it as had Moses recommended him. Such act was indeed an offense against Moses, and when Moses blamed him about that, he apologized to him and said: I did not tell anyone of the Copt about that, but I only told your brothers about it; may God help you and hide your case.

So Moses returned by night to the city.

 

18 i Worried whether the Copts knew about the killer or not.

18 j Yesterday you deceived me, and today you again call me and seek my help.

 

19 k Because he was one of the Copt.

 

20 l Who was one of the Children of Israel.

 

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[23] 22. And when he set out [from the city of Pharaoh] aiming at Midiana, he said: "I hope my Lord will guide me on the straight and direct way [leading me to Midian.]"

 

[24] 23. And when he arrived at the water [well] of Median b, he found there a crowd of people watering [their cattle], and he found apart from them two women keeping back [their sheep] c;

[Moses] said [to them]: "What is the matter with you [that you do not water your flocks with the rest of people?]"

They said: " We do not water [our flocks, at the time of crowding,] till the shepherds go away [with their sheep, and we then give water to our sheep], and our father is a very old man d."

 

[25] 24. So he watered for them [their sheep till satisfaction]; then he went aside to the shade e, and said: "My Lord, truly am I in [desperate] need of [any] good that You may send to me. f "

 

[26] 25. Then one of the two [women] came to him, walking shyly, and said: "My father invites you that he may pay to you the recompense for that you gave water to [our sheep.]" g

So when [Moses] came and told him the whole story h, [Shu'aib] said [to Moses]: "Fear not; for, by now, you are secure from the people of the wrong-doers." i

 

[27] 26. Said one of the two [women]: "Father, hire him [to tend the sheep]; for the best of those whom you hired is [this man who is] strong j and trustworthy k."

 

[28] 27. [Shu'aib or Reuel] said: I desire to marry one of these two daughters of mine to you, on condition that you should work for me [in tending the sheep] for eight years; but if you complete ten, it will be of your own accord l, and I do not wish to be hard to you [by completing ten years]; if God please, you will find me one of the righteous m.

 

[29] 28. [Moses] said: "This [deal] is [to be observed] by me and youn; whichever of the two terms [the eight or the ten years] I accomplish [in tending the sheep], I may not be demanded for more [than that]; then let God witness o what we say." p

 

22 a Which was a town in the Wilderness of Sinai, few parassangs (or leagues) away from the El-Tor (or Hor or Horeb) mountain; [one league equals about 5.5 kilometers.]

The author of the Arabic book: (With the Prophets), said on page 223: It was situated around the northern end of the Aqaba gulf.

 

 

23 b i.e. he arrived at the well of which the people of that town took water.

23 c i.e. they prevented their sheep from the water, lest they should mix with the sheep of the shepherds.

23 d And he cannot come out to water the sheep.

And Moses felt compassion to them, so

 

 

24 e And he sat there, and was hungry.

24 f i.e. I am in need, and I dont possess anything.

So when the two women returned to their father, he said: What is the matter with you, that today you returned early?

And they told him about the man who watered the sheep for them, so Shu'aib said to one of them: Bring him to me.

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 g So he went with her to the house of her father Shu'aib, whose name in Hebrew was Reuel, who had seven daughters.

This Shu'aib or Reuel is not Shu'aib, son of Tema, son of Ishmael, mentioned in the Quran, chapter 7; because this latter was before the time of Moses.

25 h About slaying the Copt, and the rest of the story.

25 i It means: secure from Pharaoh and his people, because he has no dominion on our land, and we are not in his kingdom.

 

 

26 j With his getting the water out of the well, giving water to the sheep and he does not get tired.

26 k Her father said: How did you know him being trustworthy?

She said: The armlet fell from my hand, while I was not aware, and he found and gave it to me, and did not hide it from me.

 

 

 

27 l i.e. such thing will be a favor of you, and it will not any obligatory duty of you.

27 m i.e. with my good company and fulfilling the covenant.

 

 

 

 

28 n That both of us should fulfill the condition, without breaking it.

28 o i.e. witness our deal and hear our words.

28 p Therefore, he gave him in marriage his daughter Zipporah, and Moses resided with him tending the sheep, and she begot for him a son whom he named Gershom, then she gave birth to another son whom he named Eleazar.
Then Shu'aib (or Reuel) died, and Moses started to tend the sheep of his brother in law Jethro son of Reuel.

 

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[30] 29. Then, when Moses had accomplished the term [of the eight yearsa], and was traveling with his family [: his wife and two sons b], he saw in the distance a fire by the side of the [Mount] Hor c, and said to his family: "Stay here; for I see in the distance a fire; that I may bring you therefrom information [about the correct way d], or [bring] a brand of fire [in a piece of wood] that you may kindle fire [from it.]"

 

[31] 30. When he came to it, he was called from the right e bank of the valley f, in the blessed g area [below the mountain, and which was called the Valley of Tuwa], out of the tree [of olive] h: "Moses, I AM God, the Lord of the worlds."

 

[32] 31. "[Now] cast down your staff [on the ground!]"

[So he cast it down] but when he saw it moving vigorously as it were a genie, he turned to flee [from it] headlong and turned not backwards.

[So God be glorified called him, and said:] "O Moses, come forward and fear not; for surely you are safe."

 

[33] 32. "Introduce your hand into your bosom [: the opening of your shirt], and it shall come out white [with radiation] without disease [or skin depigmentation];

and in case you fear [when you see it], fold your hand [under your armpit, and it will return back to its usual condition];

so these [: the staff and the white hand] are two proofs from your Lord to Pharaoh and his princes; for surely they are an ungodly people.

 

[34] 33. [Moses] said: "My Lord, I killed one of them, and I fear lest they may kill me."

 

[35] 34. "And Aaron, my brother, is more fluent than I am; so send him with me as a follower i and helper to confirm my [words]; for I fear that they will deny me."

 

[36] 35. [God] said: "We shall assist you, [Moses], with your brother [Aaron]j, and give to both of you an authority [by means of the nine miracles] so that they cannot afflict you [with any harm]; [therefore], because of Our [nine] miracles [they will fear and dread you; and] you both in addition to those who follow you will be the victors k."

 

29 a The indication of that it was the term of the eight years not of the ten years, because He said: (When Moses had accomplished the term), and He did not say: accomplished the two terms.

29 b With his sheeps, aiming to travel to Egypt, and that was after the death of Shu'aib (Reuel) the father of his wife, and the standing of his son instead of his father.

29 c Horeb or El-Tor Mountain.

29 d He had missed the way because of the darkness of the night.

 

 

30 e i.e. to the right side of Moses, who was moving from Midian aiming at Egypt.
For this reason, God be glorified said in the Quran 19: 52, which means:

(And We called to him from the right side of the Tor: [Mount Sinai: Horeb])

It means: the mountain was to the right of Moses.

 

God be glorified said also in this soora 28: 44, which means:

(And you [Mohammed] were not on the western side of the [Mount Horeb] when We decreed to Moses the matter.)

It means: on the side of the Mount Horeb to the west of Moses.

So according to this description, the mountain was to his right, his face towards the south, i.e. towards Egypt to which he aimed in his journey, and the town of Midian behind him.

30 f i.e. which was along the side of Mount Horeb.

30 g It was blessed and sacred because Prophet Abraham prayed and worshipped there. Then the light of God settled in the tree.

30 h For this reason, God said it is blessed, that is in the Quran 24: 35, which means:

(lit [with oil derived] from a blessed tree: an olive); because God spoke to Moses out of it, and said: (Moses, I AM God, the Lord of the worlds.)

In fact, Ezra son of Siraeh made a mistake in his Torah, when he said it was the blackberry tree [as in the Arabic Bible, while in the English Bible: he said: the bush.]

That is because this tree is the hiding place of the swines; it is an evil tree with curved spikes which will tear the clothes of anyone approaches it or culls of its fruits. Our father Adam uprooted it when he ate of its fruit then he uprooted it and cast it away, because it was the reason for his expelling out of the garden.

 

 

34 i The word means a follower: not behind the leader but along with him, to follow and assist him.

 

 

35 j i.e. We shall make your brother an assistant to you, in order that your heart may be strengthened with him.

35 k Against them.

Therefore, Moses immediately set to Egypt, and left his family who returned to Midian, to their uncle: the brother of Moses wife: Zipporah.

 

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[37] 36. But when Moses brought them Our miracles: clearly evident, they said: "This is nothing but a magic [which you] forge a, and we never heard such [words] among our forefathers."

 

[38] 37. Moses said [answering them]: My Lord knows best who it is that has brought guidance from Him b, and whose will be the final [good] consequences c.

Surely, wrong-doers d will never prosper.

 

[39] 38. And Pharaoh saide: "O nobles, I know not that you have any god [on earth] other than myself, so kindle to me [a fire], O Haman, for baking the mud [to make bricks]; and construct [from the bricks] a lofty tower for me, in order that I may look at [the God of heaven:] the God of Moses [and ask Him: did He truly send Moses or not]; and even I believe that [Moses] is a liar f."

 

[40] 39. [Pharaoh] and his hosts were haughty in the land without right, and thought that they would never be brought back to Us [when We will punish them according to their wrong-doing and their disbelief.] g

 

[41] 40. So We seized him and his hosts [with punishment], and cast them in the sea h; see [Mohammed] then what the consequence was of the wrong-doers i.

 

[42] 41. And We appointed them [as] leaders j, inviting [their people] to the Fire k, and on the Day of Judgment no succor l shall they be given.

 

[43] 42. And We let them be followed by a curse on them in this World m, and on the Day of Judgment they shall be spurned n.

 

 

36 a Against the Lord of heaven.

 

 

 

37 b The meaning: My Lord knows best about me, because it is He Who has sent me to you with the guidance.

37 c It means: And He knows that the good final consequences will for us and for His servants who devote themselves exclusively to Him alone.

37 d Who wrong people and plunder their rights.

 

 

 

 

38 e Denying the miracles of God brought by Moses, and that was when he could not give answer to Moses and was unable to wrangle with him.

38 f And in fact the God of heaven did not send him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

39 g They thought that there is no sending of souls to the Afterlife, neither will there be any judgment nor any punishment following death.

 

 

 

 

 

40 h i.e. We cast them the Red Sea.

40 i Wasnt it the punishment and loss?

 

 

 

 

41 j i.e. outstripping others to the punishment in the world of souls.

41 k As did they invite them to the disbelief in the life of the World.

41 l By averting the punishment from them.
Similar to this aya, is another one in the Quran 11: 98, which means:

(He shall go before his people [guiding them to Hell] on the Day of Judgment, and lead them down to the Fire [in the afterlife] evil the resort and those resorting to it.)

 

 

 

42 m So that We cursed them in the Torah and in the Quran.

42 n i.e. they will be dishonored and exposed before people in the Gathering-together.

 

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[44] 43. And We did give to Moses the Scripture a, after [mentioning to him how] We had destroyed the earlier generations b so as [to be a lesson and] insight to people c, a guidance d and a mercy e, that they may receive admonition.

 

[Then God be glorified addressed His noble messenger, and said:]

[45] 44. And you [Mohammed] were not on the western side of the [Mount Horeb] f when We decreed to Moses the matter g, nor were you among the attendants h.

 

[46] 45. But We created [successive] generations [after Moses], then a long time passed on the [Children of Israel since the time of Moses i.]

Moreover, you [Mohammed] were not sojourning among the people of Midian, so that you have [now] come to rehearse on [the Meccans] Our revelationsj.

But We [have] sent [you, Mohammed, to your people, as had We sent Moses to Pharaoh k.]

 

[47] 46. Nor were you [Mohammed] by the side of the Mount [Sinai: or Horeb in Hebrew] when We called Moses [and We spoke to him and sent him to Pharaoh l.]

But [as] a mercy from your Lord m, that you may warn a people [of Mecca and Hijaz] to whom no warner came before you n, that they may receive admonition [with such tales.]

 

43 a i.e. We gave to him the Tablets on which We inscribed the Ten Words.

43 b We mentioned to him the history of the past generations and their stories, before We wrote to him on the Tablets.

Such past generations are mentioned in the Book of Genesis, which they found written before, and so they added to the Torah Collection. It might have been written in the time of Jacob or it might be part of the Scripture of Abraham.

In addition, they found the Book of Job, and such books were transmitted from fathers to sons and grandsons, until they reached to the time of Moses, and so he added them to his Torah.

Then he wrote the Book of Exodus and other books including history, incidents, and religious statements about the lawful and the forbidden things, with which God recommended him.

Moreover, the Children of Israel wrote the incidents happened after the death of Moses to the time of Ezra son of Siraeh, who wrote the present Torah Collection, after Nabuchodonosor had torn up the original one, by whom the Torah was concluded, and all the books were called the (Torah Collection.)

While about the Ten Words, He mentioned them in the Book of Exodus, which is the second book of the Torah Collection or Bible [included in the Old Testament.]

43 c i.e. so that the Children of Israel and others might take lessons of their stories and receive admonition and be not like them.

43 d i.e. to be guided to the way of the truth, by means of the original Torah, but not by that which Ezra wrote.

43 e To anyone who works according to its statements.

 

 


44 f i.e. which was situated to the west of Moses, and where God spoke to him; that is because Moses came from Midian, going to Egypt, so the mountain was to the right side of the road on which Moses walked, and it was to the right of Moses too, while the face of Moses was towards the south, and so the right hand of Moses was towards the west, and his left towards the east, while Egypt was in front of him and Midian behind him; therefore, according to such description, the valley can exactly be identified.

44 g By sending him to Pharaoh.

44 h i.e. you [Mohammed] were not present there to see with your eye and then to tell them about what happened.

 

 

 

45 i So they forsook his covenant, altered some of his statements and changed his religious law.

45 j Concerning the story of Moses with the two daughters of Shu'aib [Reuel], when he watered their sheep, then married one of them.

45 k And We have given you, Mohammed, the Quran as a miracle, as had We given the Tablets to Moses. But the Tablets were broken up and they disappeared, while the Quran will last to the end of time, and will not disappear because it is the word of God.

The proof of this is that the Quran explains about the stories of the prophets in a way which is not explained by the Torah of Ezra, and the Quran brings the correct statements, while the Torah of Ezra included many mistakes.

 

 

 

46 l It means: You were not present there so as to hear or see such incidents in order to tell your people about them; but it is We Who told you about what happened of the stories of the prophets, to be a scientific miracle for you.

46 m When He told you about their stories by means of revelation.

46 n No messenger has ever come to them since Abraham together with Ishmael had built the House of God at Mecca, till the time of Mohammed.

 

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[48] 47. Had they not [argued with Us], when a calamity befalls them on account of [the wrong-doing, disbelief and hypocrisy] that their hands produce, [We should not have sent them any messenger.]

[But they would have argued with Us] and said: "Our Lord, why had You not sent us any messenger? [before the affliction and punishment], We should then have followed Your revelations and have become believers [in the message of your messenger!] a "

 

 

[49] 48. But now when the [word of the] truth [included in the Quran] b has come to them from Us [by the tongue of Mohammed], they c say: Why has [Mohammed] not been given [some miracles] like [the miracles] that had been given to Moses? d

 

[So God be glorified replied to their words, and said:]

 

Did they not themselves disbelieve in that given to Moses in the past?' e

They said: The [Torah and the Quran] are only two works of magic which prevailedf. And they said also: We disbelieve in either of them. g

 

[50] 49. Say [O Mohammed, to these associaters]: "Bring a Book from God that gives better guidance than either [of the Torah and the Quran], which then I will certainly follow h, if you are truthful [in your claim that they are two works of magic.]"

 

[51] 50. Then, if they do not answer your [invitation, Mohammed, about either the belief or the book], know that they are only following their desires i; and who is further astray than he who follows his desires j without guidance from God?

Surely God guides not the people of the wrong-doers [to the way of the truth. k]

 

[52] 51. And now surely We have made the word to reach them l, that they may receive admonition.

 

47 a And therefore We sent them Mohammed, in order that they might not have any argument after sending the messenger.

Similar to this aya in meaning, is another one in the Quran 20: 134, which means:

(Had We destroyed them with a punishment before it, they would have said: "Our Lord, if only You had sent to us a messenger, we should certainly have followed Your revelations before we were humbled and put to shame.)

 

 

48 b The Quran in fact is the word of God, while the falsehood is the word of devils. The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 10: 108, which means:

("O people, now has the 'Truth' come to you from your Lord.)

So the 'Truth' is the word of God.

Moreover, it is mentioned in the Quran 13: 1, which means:

(The [Quran] which has been revealed to you [O Mohammed] from your Lord is the truth.)

It means: The Quran is the truth because it is the word of God.

48 c i.e. the associaters among the Arab say:

48 d Because the Quran alone is not sufficient as a proof of his apostle-hood.

48 e It means: Hadnt they disbelieved in the Torah, as have they disbelieved in the Quran, when they said:

48 f Among people, and their value increased with their much many followers.

48 g The meaning: The associaters demand from Us a miracle like the staff of Moses; but do they believe in Moses and his Book when he came with the staff? No, at all; but they did not believe in it.

And Had they believed in Moses and his Torah, they would have forsaken the worshipping of idols, because the Torah forbids the worshipping of idols, and invites to the worship of God alone. And in the same way, the Quran invites to the worship of God alone; while their demanding of miracles is only for disputing with you and wrangling against you.

 

 

49 h If you bring such a book, I will certainly follow it and work according to its program.

 

 

50 i i.e. that to which they incline by nature.

50 j i.e. none is more astray than he is.

50 k Because they wrong people and plunder their rights.

 

 

 

 

51 l By means of your warning them; therefore, they will have no excuse afterwards.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to describe the people of the Bible: those of them who believed in the Quran, and He said:]

[53] 52. Those [Jews and Christians who converted] to whom We gave the Book a before the Qur'an - they do believe in it b.

 

[54] 53. And when the [Quran] is rehearsed to them, they say: "We believe in it; it is the truth from our Lord; indeed we have been submissive [to God alone] from before this [Quran.]" c

 

[55] 54. Such [believers] shall be given their recompense twice over d, according to their patient perseverance, and avert evil [word] with [good] word, and spend e out of that wherewith We have provided them.

 

[56] 55. And when they hear a futile [talk], they [out of their nobility] withdraw from it, and say [to those whose talk is futile]: "We have our own deeds and you have yours; safety [from us] be to you f; we desire not [to acquire the manners of] the ignorantg."

 

 

 

52 a i.e. the Torah.

52 b i.e. they believe in the Quran.

 

 

 

53 c i.e. we were submissive to the command of our Lord, complying with the matter of the monotheism, associating none with our Lord in the worship; then when we heard the Quran, we believed in it, because it invites people to the monotheism as does the Torah invite to the monotheism and to discarding the idols.

 

 

 

54 d One time for their holding fast with the monotheism [: the exclusive devotion to God alone] when they were following their religion, and another time for believing in the Quran and following the messenger onto whom the Quran was revealed.

54 e On the poor and needy.

 

 

55 f In return of our safety from you.

55 g Nor to accompany them.

 

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[The Prophet salam to him prayed for guidance of his unlce Abu Talib; therefore, His saying be glorified in this aya was revealed:]

[57] 56. You [Mohammed] cannot guide aright whomsoever you like, but God does guide whomsoever He will [: being worthy of guidance], and He knows best those who deserve guidance.

 

 

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[58] 57. [Some associaters] said [to the Prophet]: "If we follow the guidance together with you, we shall be kidnapped out of our land.a "

[so God be glorified said in reply to them:]

Have We not established for them a secure sanctuary b, to which the fruits of everything [they need of food, fruit and others] are imported, as a [sustained] provision from Us?

But most of them know not [the consequences of their disbelief.]

 

[59] 58. And how many a city We destroyed c, whose way of life was corrupted d! [And their people blasphemed e.]

And these are their dwellings: [empty and ruined]: they have not been inhabited after them save little [portion of them.]

And it is We Who were the Inheritor f.

 

[60] 59. Yet your Lord [O Mohammed] never exterminated the cities until He sent into the capital of these [cities] a messenger, to rehearse Our revelations to them g; and We never exterminate the cities unless that their people are wrong-doers h.

 

[61] 60. Whatever [material] thing you [people] have been given is only the enjoyment of the life of the World and its glitter i.

But [the ethereal and spiritual stuffs] that are with God are better [than the material stuffs of the life of the World] and more enduring [than they are, and it will not perish, disappear or finish.]

Will you not then understand [and substitute the material for the ethereal?]

 

 

 

57 a i.e. they will take us captives, and will beat and kill us.

57 b i.e. a House which if anyone enters, he will be safe of his enemy, so how do they fear now?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

58 c This points out to the habitation of Aad, Thamood and Lots people; Quraish passed by such habitations and ruins in their travels for trade.

58 d i.e. their opinions changed, and their good habits changed into bad habits.

58 e So We destroyed them.

58 f Of their habitations and property.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59 g And to explain to them Our purposes.

59 h i.e. the powerful among them wrong the weak.

 

 

 

 

 

60 i Which will deceive and distract you from remembering God, then you will leave it and go to the Next Life.

 

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[62] 61. Is he [: the believer], whom We have promised a fair promise [of the reward in the Next Life and the prosperity in Paradise a] which he will receive [in the Next Life],

like him [: the associater] whom We comfort with [wealth as] the enjoyment of the life of the World b, then on the Day of Judgment he will be of those arraigned [round about Hell, for punishment?] c

 

[63] 62. On the day [of the death of associaters], the [angel in charge of their punishment] will say: "Where are my associates d whom you claim [they will intercede for you; and whom you worshipped? e]"

 

[Then God be glorified told about the condition of the associaters who died and those who deceived them, and He said:]

[64] 63. Those [genies and devils] against whom the word [of punishment] is due [as they deserve], will say:

"Our Lord, these [human beings] are those f whom we seduced;

we seduced them even as did we seduce [ourselves]g;

we [now] quit ourselves, before You, of their worshipping us [in the past.]" h

 

[65] 64. It will be said [to the associaters]: "[Now] call upon your associates [to intercede for you, as did you claim before!]"

And they will call upon them, but they will not respond to them, and they will see the doom [and wish] that they would be guided [to the way of exit from the Fire.]

 

[66] 65. On the [Judgment] Day when [the angel] will call to them [saying:] "What response and answer you gave to the messengers [when they invited you to believe?]" i

 

[67] 66. On that [Dooms] day, their 'claims' [concerning the intercession j] will be blindly confusing to them,

and they even will not question each other [about their families and parents. k]

 

[68] 67. But as for him who repents [from the association], believes [in God and His messenger] and works the righteous [work], he may l be one of the successful.

 

61 a In reward for his obedience.

61 b Which he will leave and depart from it by death, and then he will regret [the prosperity of] the Next Life which he will miss.

61 c Will the condition of the believer be like the condition of the associater? Not at all.

 

 

 

62 d Every aya in which is mentioned the word my associates: it is the word of the angel in charge of their chastisement; because they worshipped the angels claiming they were the daughters of God.

So the angels are associates or participants in their work and in Paradise; the indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 41: 47, which means:

([Then] on the day when the [angel in charge of their chastisement will] call to them: "Where are my partners [who are like me, and whom you associated with God? So call them now to intercede for you!]

They [will] say: "You have heard us calling them [but none of them has answered us], and none of us has seen [any of them.]")

[Explanation:]

Therefore, ("You have heard us calling them) means: we have told you; and the address is to the angel in charge of their chastisement.

62 e They will say: We have missed them.

 

 

 

63 f They point out to their followers among humans.

63 g By forsaking Your obedience.

63 h i.e. we [now] quit ourselves, before You, of them and of their worshipping us [in the past.]"

That is because disbelievers serve devils by compulsion in the world of souls; the indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 34: 41, telling about the words of the angels, which means:

([The angels will] say: "Glory be to You! You are our Master, without them [: No alliance between us and them.]

But they served the genie [in the Barzakh world]; most of [these disbelievers and associaters] used to believe [the words of the genie.]")

 

 

 

65 i And they will say: "Our Lord, our ignorance overcame us, [making us] wretched, and we were a people erring [from the way of the truth.]

 

 

 

66 j About which they foretold people in the life of the World, when they said: These are our intercessors before God. It means: their foretelling about the intercession of their idols will not be vindicated. But they will lose hope about that and their dreaming about it will turn to be a complete loss.

Similar to this in meaning is His saying be glorified in the Quran 7: 37, which means:

(Until when Our messengers [: the angels of death] came to them, to take their souls [out of their bodies], they said: "Where are [your associates] that you used to invoke besides God?"

The [unbelievers] said: "They have deserted us and we have lost them.")

It means: We missed them and we dont know about their fate.

 

Similar to this also is His saying be glorified in the Quran 40: 73-74, which means:

(Then it was said to them [by the angels when they dragged them with their chains]:

"Where are [your gods] whom you associated [in the worship] apart from God?"

They said: "We do not find them.)

 

 

 

66 k But each one of them will be concerned about himself rather than he will be concerned about others.

 

 

 

67 l Here the word may is mentioned [which implies the probability], although he will certainly be successful; because if he keeps up to that he will succeed, but he may later on slip away, and so he will lose.

 

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[And it was revealed, concerning those who said: If only this Quran was sent down to a prominent man out the two cities Mecca and Ta'if!"

And they chose Waleed son of Mughiera out of the city of Mecca, and Urwa son of Masuod Al- Thaqafi out of the city of Ta'if:]

[69] 68. [O Mohammed] your Lord creates whatsoever [creatures] He will, as does He choose [out of them, the messengers]; the choice is not up to them a.

Glory be to God! And He be highly exalted above what they associate [with Him.] b

 

[Then God be glorified established the proof concerning His correct choice, and He said:]

[70] 69. [O Mohammed] your Lord knows what [secrets] their hearts conceal, and what [words] they disclose.

 

[71] 70. And He is God: there is no god [in the entire universe] but He [alone.]

To Him the praise is due [of you c]: in the first [life of the World] and in the last [or Next Life.]

And up to Him is the judgment [of His servants, according to what they deserve],

and to Him shall you [all] be brought back [after your death d.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

68 a But the choice is up to God.

And actually the commentators are wrong when they say: He chooses what they like the choice be; for this is wrong; the correct is The choice is up to God not up to them.

68 b i.e. He is sanctified, glorified and exalted above having any associate in His creation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

70 c i.e. you must praise Him for His bounties.

70 d When He will reward you according to your acts.

 

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[72] 71. Say [O Mohammed, to them]: "What's your opinion a: if God makes for you the night perpetual [without being succeeded by any day b] till Doomsday, who is a god other than God who could bring you [day] light? Will you not [then] hear [the wind and the falling of the snow?]"

 

[Then God be glorified addressed those who will be in the day side, and He said:]

[73] 72. Say: "What's your opinion: if God makes for you the day perpetual c till Doomsday, who is a god other than God who could bring you night, wherein you may rest? Will you not then see [the severe heat of the sun? d]"

 

[74] 73. It is some of His mercy to you [people] that He has made the night and day [successive]; that you may rest by [night], and seek after His bounty by [day e], and that you may be grateful [to God f.]

 

71 a i.e. tell me your opinion: in what condition you will be:

71 b And this will actually take place when the earth will stop its axial rotation, [so that the side which will not face the sun will be in a perpetual night darkness]; and then your water will freeze, your cattle will die, as will your trees because of the extreme coldness, and no plant will grow for you, so you will perish because of the extreme coldness and starvation; and this night will last till Doomsday.

 

 

 

72 c i.e. lasting and continuous which will not be succeeded by any night, so that your water will evaporate due to the extreme heat, your trees will dry up and your cattle will perish; therefore, you too will perish because of the extreme heat, starvation and thirst.

72 d And so you may believe in your Lord and will not associate anything with Him.

These two ayat have been interpreted in details in my book The Universe and the Quran with the title of The standstill of the earth

 

 

73 e i.e. to seek after the provision.

73 f According to what He has bestowed on you.

 

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[75] 74. On the [Judgment] Day when [the angel] will call to them and say: "Where now are my associates whom you claimed [in the life of the World, that they will intercede for you, and you worshipped them apart from God?] a

 

[76] 75. And We [shall] draw out of every nation a witness b, and say: "Produce your [heavenly book] to prove [your claims about their intercession!] c "

So they [shall] know [then] that the right is with God, and all [the claim of intercession] that they forged [will] fail them.

 

74 a They will say: They have deserted us and we have lost them. And we do not know about their fate

 

 

 

75 b i.e. We take out of every nation a witness to give witness against the disbelievers and associaters among his people, and against the deniers of his apostle-hood; the witness is the apostle.

God be glorified said in the aya (We draw out): it means: We take him out of his people by the death, and We pull him out of his material body, and prepared him to the day of the Gathering-together, in order to give witness against the associaters among his people and the deniers of his apostle-hood.

This is like His saying be glorified in the Quran 16: 89, which means:

(On the Day [of Judgment] We shall send into every nation a witness against them, one out of themselves: and We shall bring you [Mohammed as] a witness against these [associaters].)

So the apostles give witness against them, that they were associaters.

At that time, they will say: We did not worship them as gods, but only to intercede for us before God.

So the angels will say: Didnt God send you messengers to warn you of worshipping them and sanctifying their graves?

They will say: Yes, but we heard our fathers say that they will intercede.

75 c It means: Produce a heavenly book in which is written that the prophets and saints can intercede to whom they like.

No, at all; you have no evidence for that; because the prophets and saints do not intercede for anyone other than the one to whom God permits them to intercede; for it is mentioned in the Quran 2: 255, which means:

(Who is he that intercedes with Him [on the Judgment Day] except only by His leave [on behalf of monotheists only]?)

 

And it is mentioned in the Quran 21: 28, which means:

(And they intercede not [for anyone of people] except for him whom [God] is well-pleased with, and they tremble in awe of His [glory and might.])

 

Moreover, God be glorified said in the Quran 6: 51, which means:

(And warn with the [Quran] those [believers] who fear [of their Lord's punishment for some of their deeds;

because they know] that [in the Next Life] they shall be gathered together to their Lord;

there is no protector for them besides Him, and no intercessor;

[so warn them with it] haply they may ward off [God's punishment by warding off His disobedience.])

 

In addition, God be glorified in the Quran 6: 70, which means:

(Leave alone those [associaters] who take their religion for a sport and a diversion, and are deceived by the life of the World,

but admonish [others] with the [Quran] lest a soul should be isolated [from other souls and be taken to Hell] because of [the sins] that it earned,

[when they will] have besides God no patron nor any intercessor;

though it gives any ransom equal [to its sins] it will not be taken from it.)

 

And this in the Quran 40: 18, which means:

(Wrong-doers will have no intimate friend [to save them] nor any intercessor to be obeyed.)

 

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[77] 76. Now Karon [Korah] a was one of the people of Moses; he became insolent to them b, for We had given him treasures such that its excavation [now] is a burdensome for a band of strong men c.

When [some of the Children of Israel:] his people said to him: "Do not exult [over us, Korah, with your wealth]; God loves not those that exult."

 

[78] 77. "And seek, with [the wealth] that God has given you, the abode of the Next Life d, but neglect not your portion of the World e, and be kind, [to people, with your wealth] even as God has been Kind to you, and seek not to do corruption in the land [by committing the disobedience of God]; [for] God loves not the doers of corruption."

 

[79] 78. [Korah] said: "This has been given to me because of a [certain] knowledge which I have." f

[So God be glorified said:]

Did he not know that God had destroyed, of the [past] generations before him, [men] who were stronger than he was in power and more in collecting [wealth] h; the guilty will not be judged concerning their sins. i

 

[80] 79. [One day] he went forth, in his pomp j, before his people [: the Children of Israel]; those who were desirous of the Worldly life said: "Would that to us had been given [wealth] like [the wealth] that has been given to Korah! Surely, he has a great [Worldly] portion [of wealth.]"

 

[81] 80. But those who had been given knowledge k said: "Woe to you! the reward of God [in Paradise] is better [than the riches of the World] for [anyone] who believes [in God and in His messenger: Moses] and works righteous [work]; and [Paradise] shall not be given [to anyone] but to the steadfast. l "

 

[82] 81. So We cleft the earth open [to swallow] him up together with his home.

And he had not any party apart from God to defend him neither was he victorious [over Moses and Aaron.]

 

[83] 82. And those who had, the day before m, desired for his place, said: "Waiy n! God outspreads o and restricts p provision to any of His servants He will; if God had not shown favor to us q, He would have cleft [the earth] with us.

Waiy! surely the ungrateful [of Gods bounties] will never prosper." r

 

76 a His name in Hebrew was Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi.

76 b i.e. he transgressed on Moses and his companions, because he made a party and plotted against Moses; who prayed God against them, so God cleft the earth open with them: Korah, his family, his party together with their property and their tents, for they were in the wilderness.

76 c It means: If it is intended to excavate and uncover today: none can do that but only a group of stout and strong men.

 

 

 

77 d It means: Expend out of your wealth, in the way of God, to find that in the Next Life.

77 e i.e. spare some of your wealth for your livelihood; it means: take out of it what is sufficient for you and expend the excess on the poor and needy.

 

 

 

78 f That is because he found a mine of gold, and he started to take out of it, purify it from the dust and stones, melt it in crucibles and make it gold blocks. None of the Children of Israel knew about that.

78 h So God destroyed them when they became arrogant and waxed proud.

78 i But they shall be recognized by their marks [: being naked], and shall be taken by [their] forelocks and feet. [As in the Quran 55: 41].

It means: they will not be asked in a way of judgment, but will be asked in a way of rebuking and censuring.

 

 

 

79 j With his fine clothes, servants and followers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80 k i.e. the scholars of the Children of Israel.

80 l In Gods obedience and away from the luring of the World.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82 m When he went forth, in his pomp, before them.

82 n It is a word used for exclamation; this word is still used in the Dhi Qar Governorate (or Province): one of the provinces of Iraq.

[According to the late interpreter of the Quran and Bible Mohammed-Ali Hassan Al-Hilly: Abraham the grandfather of the Children of Israel was originally from the city of Ur near the city of Nassiria; therefore, such words, common in use in this region, were retained by the Children of Israel The translator.]

82 o Not because such one [to whom He outspreads the provision] is honored or preferred by God.

82 p Not because anyone [to whom He restricts the provision] is disgraced, but only to test or try them by that.

82 q And had He given us wealth like to what He gave to Korah, then we would have become arrogant over Gods messenger, and He would have cleft the earth open to swallow us, as He cleft the earth open to swallow Korah.

82 r The story of Korah is written in the Torah Collection or Bible [included in the Old Testament], Book of Numbers, chapter sixteen.

 

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[84] 83. Such is the home of the Next Life [: Paradise]; We assign it to those who seek not superiority [over people] on earth, nor yet corruption [by the work of association and the disobedience.]

The good end will be for those who ward off [the association and sins.]

 

[Then God be glorified described the God-fearing who ward off the disobedience of God, and He said:]

[85] 84. Whosoever a produces good [deeds] shall have [in Paradise] better than it b.

[Then God be glorified described the corruptors on earth, and He said:]

But whosoever produces evil [deeds], then those who do evil [deeds] will not be requited [with any good reward], but [their requital will be the punishment in Hell] according to that they were doing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84 a Of these God-fearing who desire not to seek after superiority on earth, nor yet any corruption.

84 b i.e. perpetual blessings in Paradise.

 

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[When the Prophet arrived at Juhfa, which is a site midway between Mecca and Medina, and he recognized the way to Mecca, he longed for it; so Gabriel came to him and said: Do you miss your hometown?

He said: Yes.

[Gabriel] said: Then God says:]

[86] 85. Surely, [God] Who has imposed upon you [Mohammed, to recite] the Quran [to people] will bring you [to Mecca] again [victorious over them, so dont grieve for departing from it.]

[And when the associaters said to Gods messenger: You are misguided away from the truth, God be glorified said:]

Say, [Mohammed, to them]: "My Lord knows best which [of us] has brought the guidance, and which [of us] is in manifest error [I or you.]"

 

[Then God be glorified mentioned His favor on the Prophet by revealing the Quran to him, and He said:]

[87] 86. You [Mohammed] did not hope that [what a is in] the [Heavenly] Book would be cast to you [through revelation], but it was only a mercy from your Lord [towards you], so be not a supporter of the unbelievers.

 

[88] 87. And let [the associaters] not divert you b [Mohammed] from Gods revelations after having been revealed to you; but call [people] to [worship] your Lord, and be not one of the associaters.

 

[89] 88. And pray not, with God, another god; there is no god but He [alone]; every [material] thing will perish c saving only His aspect [or neighborhood] d;

the judgment [in the Next Life] will be [according to] His [will];

and you [all] will be brought back to Him [following your death.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

86 a History of the ancient and the story of the prophets and what happened between them and their peoples.

 

 

 

87 b By their saying that the one who brought the revelation to you was a genie but not an angel.

 

 

 

88 c It means: Every material thing will tear up and disappear, so that nothing of the materials will remain as it is, and even the celestial objects will tear up and disperse.

Similar to this in meaning, is His saying be glorified in the Quran 55: 26, which means:

(Whosoever upon the [earth] shall perish.)

i.e. shall tear up and vanish.

88 d i.e. saving those in His side, they will not perish nor will vanish: they are the angels and the righteous souls who inhabit the paradises, like the prophets, saints and martyrs, i.e. those under the Throne in the spiritual heavens.

 

Similar to this in meaning is His saying be glorified in the Quran 55: 27, which means:

(But the 'neighborhood' of your Lord, endowed with majesty and honor, shall endure.)

 

Also His saying be glorified in the Quran 39: 68, which means:

(And the 'Horn' will be blown, and those [genies] in the [gaseous] heavens and those [humans] in the earth will be [thunder-] stricken save [those angels, prophets and righteous] whom God pleases.)

It means: Save those who inhabit the ethereal heavens, which are the paradises (or Gardens.)

Anyhow, (saving only His aspect [or neighborhood]) has been explained with evidences and proofs, in my book The Universe and the Quran under the title of The Destruction and dispersion of celestial objects

 

By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 28 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)

 

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