Soora 4

 

[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)

 

The meaning

 

More explanation

[2] 1. O people, ward off [the disobedience of] your Lord, Who created you from one a soul’s [decayed corpse that had become mud],

and out of the [same mud] He created his mate b, 

and – from them twain – He spread abroad a multitude of men and women. c

And ward off [the disobedience of] God by whose [name] you request each other d, and [ward off the punishment of God concerning] womb-relatives e; surely, God is Ever Watching over you.f

 

[3] 2. Give to orphans their wealth g, and do not substitute [your] bad [property] for [their] good [property] h, nor absorb their wealth into your own wealth i; for this j, indeed, is a great sin k.

 

1 a He was Adam whom God created from mud. As in the word of God in the Quran 38: 71, which means:

([O Mohammed, mention to your people] when your Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create a mortal out of mud.")

1 b i.e. and He created, out of that mire or mud of which He created Adam; He too created: Eve as a wife for Adam.

1 c i.e. He spread and dispersed out of these two persons, by means of reproduction, a large number of men and women; therefore, you, Adam's children, have to cooperate and be merciful to each other: because you belong to one father and one mother.

1 d It means: you request each other by saying: I request of you, by God, to do so and so; and : I ask you, by God, to help me in my situation.

And this in a way of glorifying Him; therefore, with your acts, you have to ward off His disobedience, as do you glorify Him with your words.

1 e i.e. and ward off God's punishment concerning your relatives and kindred; so that you should not hurt them, nor should you shrink from them, but you have to be merciful and kind to them, and to do charity to them, particularly so concerning those among them that are poor, orphans and old men.

1 f i.e. He watches you and see your work and acts then will reward you accordingly in the Next Life.

2 g The addressing here is to the guardians of orphans; i.e. give to them their wealth by expending on them when they are young, and by giving it to them when they are adult if you see that they are wise in behavior.

2 h i.e. Don't take the good of the property of the orphan and give him the bad of your property; that is because some men used to mix his sheep with the sheep of the orphan by count, then when he intends to give the share of the orphan, he chooses the weak and the bad out of them to give it to the orphan, and he retains with him every fat sheep.

2 i i.e. don't mix their cattle with your cattle in order to take of their milk and wool by way of cheating and stealing.

2 j i.e. the cheating, the stealing and substituting the bad of your property for the good of the orphan's property.

2 k In the sight of God.

 

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[One of the prophet companions came and said to him: "God's messenger, I have some cows and sheep, and I have one wife who is not sufficient to milk the cows and sheep, and I want to marry another woman to help my wife in that. My neighbor also has a girl orphan whom I want to marry, but I am cruel of nature and I fear lest I should transgress and beat her for any reason; while God – be glorified -  said in His Glorious Quran 93: 9, which means:(Therefore, as for the orphan: oppress him not.)

So, I am embarrassed about that; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[4] 3. If you [men] fear that you will not deal justly with the [female] orphans [whom you desire to marry], then marry such [non-orphan] women as proven to you 'good and upright' a [and not corrupt]: two, three or four b;

but if you fear you may not be equitable [with them], then [be content with] only one, or what [slave-women] your right hands own;

that [: your marrying the non-orphan 'good and upright' women] will be more appropriate [than marrying the orphan  and humiliating her c], to prevent you from being inequitable. d 

 

 

3 a This is pointing out to His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 226, which means:

(Upright women are for upright men, as are upright men for upright women.)

 

 

3 b On condition to be just in dealing between the women.

 

 

3 c With beating or reviling.

 

 

3 d You are not allowed to marry more than nine women all the days of your life, even though your wives die and you remain single or bachelor. That is because God forbade His messenger from marrying more than that, as in the Quran 33: 52, which means:

(Henceforth you [prophet] are not allowed [to marry other] women, nor that you change them for other wives, eventhough their beauty may please you.)

 

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[5] 4. a And give to women their dowries as an obligatory gift b; but if they are pleased to offer you any of the [dowry], consume it c with delicious and wholesome [consumption.] d

 

[6] 5. But give not –to those that are fool, [among your women, children, foster children and your orphans] – your wealth which God assigned for you as a maintenance [to your livelihood e], but –out of it – provide for them and clothe them f, and say to them [some] kind wordsg.

 

4 a The addressing here is to the men responsible about the woman: like her father, brother, grandfather or the one who takes care about growing her.

4 b Which God prescribed for them, so you should not take anything of it by force and by loath.

4 c i.e. then eat that which is offered to you from your daughters.

4 d God allowed the responsible about the woman (like her father, brother, or grandfather ..etc) to eat the part of her dowry which she offers to him.

While God forbade the husband to take any part of his wife dowry, as in His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 2: 229, which means:

(And you [husbands] are not allowed to take any part of [the dowry] which you gave to them,

unless both of the [husband and wife] fear that they cannot keep within 'the statements prescribed by God')

 

5 e And by which you can obtain your needs and essentials.

It means: If your wife is defective of mind and management and she squanders the money, then don't let your money by her hand so that she spends of it as she likes; because she will squander your money and spend it on trivial things that are valueless and unnecessary.
Similarly, your son or your step-son or the orphan whom you bring to dwell with you in your house for the sake of God: so if he is a fool or he squanders the money, then don't give your money by his hand to dispose in it as he likes, and don't give him the key of your shop and don't make him in deputy of your possessions, because he will betray you and steal out of your money and squanders it the while you are unaware; because he is a fool, therefore, don't trust in the fool neither do you depend on him in various affairs.

5 f It means: You have to maintain their needs and their clothing, so you give to them according to the need, and if they demand more than their requirement, then apologize to them. 

5 g i.e. don't treat them with violence, beating and reviling; but deal with them kindly, with soft words and deal with them with kindness, and you then will have good results; because the fool complies with soft words and the fair promise.

 

Among the things, on which woman squanders money, are clothes and cosmetics with which the woman puts her make up nowadays, and she beautifies herself;

so if you let her money by her hand, she will keep up to buy clothes and shoes and cosmetics and the make-up, and she does not satisfy with one or two dresses, but in every month she wears a new dress and a new shoes and she wastes the old dresses and doesn't care about them; that is because she did not toil in obtaining the money, but she gets it without difficulty.

 

On the other hand, your son or your step-son or the orphan who lives with you: he squanders the money if he is a fool: so that he buys what he likes of toys, tools, clothes and others; and he may start to gamble and drink wine, while you are unaware.

 

Therefore, don't depend on anyone of these, neither should you give your money by his hand; but depend on yourself and manage your affairs by yourself, and then you will be successful. 

 

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[7] 6. Prove a orphans [as regards to their reason and religion] so that when they reach the marriageable age [of fifteen years]; then, if you find them with sound judgmentb, deliver to them their fortune c, and devour it not by squandering d, and in haste lest they should grow up e.

Whoso [of guardians of the orphan] is rich, let him abstain generously f; and whoso [of guardians of the orphan] is poor, let him take [his hire] thereof as recommended. g

And when you deliver to the [orphans] their fortune h, have [the transaction] witnessed in their presence i; God suffices as a Reckoner. j

 

6 a i.e. examine them.

6 b And that they can keep their money.

6 c i.e. their money.

6 d i.e. guardians of the orphan, don't take of their money more than what you deserve of your wage for tending their sheep, farming in their garden or cultivating their land, irrigating their crops, building their house or other works for which you deserve the recompense for work. [The addressing here is to the guardians of orphans.] 

6 e It means: Don't hasten to take of their money more than what you deserve of your recompense, fearing lest they should grow, when the money will go from you and return to the orphans; so by doing that you take the opportunity of time. It implies the hastening to take [the money] before the time passes.

6 f i.e. let him abstain from taking hire for his work out of the money of the orphans, and he will have his reward with God.

6 g i.e. let him not decrease or increase, but he should take the recompense of his work as do other workers take.

6 h when they attain the adulthood [when they have sound judgment.]

6 i Bringing two or more witnesses, so that no denial may be afterwards.

6 j i.e. God takes account of people and punishes the guilty and unbelievers; so beware of His punishment, O gaurdians of the orphan, and don't take of their money more than what you deserve.

 

Comment: if you have some money of an orphan, and you trade with it and you gain, then a quarter of the gain is for him in addition to his capital of money; but if you lose and your trade does not win, then no loss will be on the part of the orphan.

 

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[The Arab, in the pre-Islam era of the ignorance, used to give inheritance only to males and in exclusion of females. Therefore, this aya was revealed in order to correct their mistakes:]

[8] 7. For men there should be a [certain] portion of the [inheritance] which parents and near kindred leave [after their death], and for women [also] there should be a [certain] portion of the [inheritance] which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be little or much a: a portion prescribed [for you by God. b]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 a To the male is a portion that equals the portion of two females.

 

 

7 b Therefore, don't contradict His laws.

 

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[Then God – be glorified – explained about the relatives and kindred of the deceased who do not inherit:]

 

[9] 8. And when the [other] relatives, a and the orphans and the needy, are present at [the time of] the division [of the movable property] b, then make provision for them c, out of it d, and say to them kind words. e

 

8 a i.e. the poor relatives, of the deceased, who do not inherit.

8 b Like the wheat, dried grapes, dates and other foods.

8 c i.e. give them out of that movable property; the addressing here is to the guardians or to the adult heirs if there is no guardian.

8 d Such provision will be out of the one third of the deceased.

8 e Like saying to them: "May God bless your provision, make easy your affairs and offer much to you with His favor."

 

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[Then God warned, those responsible about orphans, of devouring the wealth of the orphan:]

[10] 9. Let those [responsible about orphans] 'fear and beware' lest they should [die and] leave behind them a weak progeny [: little kids a]; about whom they would fear [poverty and lowliness after the father's death b];

so let them ward off [the punishment of] God [concerning orphans c] and say [to them some] appropriate words. d

 

[11] 10. Surely, those who devour the property of orphans [in the World] undeservedly: they [will only] devour fire in their bellies [on Judgment Day], and shall broil in a Blaze.

 

9 a Who cannot obtain their livelihood.

9 b The meaning: Don't devour the wealth of the orphan undeservedly, and don't hurt or beat them; because you too have children; so if you do that to the orphan, God will let your children be orphans, humiliated and abased, following your death.
And if your death appointment is not due, He will afflict you with a painful calamity in the World because you hurt the orphans and devour their wealth: that is when God lets the dearest of your children to your hearts die, as punishment for you in the World, and in the Next Life you will be punished in the Fire, which will be a bad destiny.

9 c so don't devour their wealth and don't hurt them if they commit any sin with their ignorance, and being unaware, but you should guide and advise them.

9 d Without reviling or humiliation.


The one responsible about the orphan has to take him to school in order to learn the reading and writing at least, or let him work in some jobs or professions like the carpentry, the smithcraft or other works; so that such profession will be the reason for his livelihood in his future; as in a parable: "A profession that man knows is a security against poverty."

Moreover, it is not allowed that he lets him without profession or job, in order that he takes advantage of his servitude.

 

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[Then God – be glorified – expounded, in this aya, that which He summarized in the aya 7 of this soora, which means:

(For men there should be a [certain] portion of the [inheritance] which parents and near kindred leave [after their death]...etc.) ]

[12] 11. God instructs you as regards your children's [share of inheritance]: [the portion of the inheritance] of a male shall be like the portion of two females. a

b But if they be women [only]: two [daughters] and over [but not any son], their share shall be two-thirds of that which he has left [and the other one third shall be for his parents: one sixth for each.] c

If she be [only] one [daughter, and the deceased has a brother and his parents are living], then the half shall be hers [and the other half shall be divided into three equal parts: for the mother, the father and the brother of the deceased], and for his parents: a sixth [share of the inheritance] to each, of that which he has left [and a sixth for his brother.] d

[That is] if he has children [: sons and daughters.]

e But if the [deceased] has no children f and his parents be his heirs g, then a third [of the inheritance] shall be for his mother [and a third shall be for his father and a third for his brother h;

[but if one of his parents is dead, then one half for his mother {or father}and one half for his brother.]

But if the [deceased] has [four] brothers, then one sixth will be for his mother i.

This should be after [the payment of] any bequestj – that the [deceased] has bequeathed – or any debt k.

l Your parents and your children: you do not know which of them [the parents or the children] are nearest in profit to you [but it is God Who knows that; so He has prescribed such division of the inheritance] – ;

this being an ordinance from God [so do not contradict this obligation]; surely God is m All-Knowing n and All-Wise o. 

 

11 a That is if the deceased has neither father, nor mother nor brother.

11 b Then God – be glorified – stated about the division between them, in case the deceased two parents are living ( i.e. the grandfather and the grandmother of the children), when the heirs are females without any male:

11 c Similarly, if they are two sons [only], they will have two-thirds: to each one of them one third, and to each of his parents one sixth; and the uncle of the children will not have anything.

11 d So the total will be six shares: three for the daughter, one for the father, one for the mother and one for the brother of the deceased: the uncle of the daughter.

While if the heir is one son, instead of the daughter, then one sixth will be for each of the deceased father and mother, while his uncle will not have anything.

Therefore, the brother will not inherit his deceased brother, in case his deceased brother has sons, but the uncle will have a share of the inheritance if his brother has only one daughter, and similarly he will have a share out of his brother's inheritance if his brother has not any children: neither sons nor daughters.

And in case the deceased has no living brother, then his inheritance will be divided as follows: a half for his daughter, a quarter for his father and a quarter for his mother.

If the deceased has more than one brother, then they will be sharers in the sixth, and this in case their father and mother are living, but if the parents are dead then the brothers of the deceased, that are the uncles of the daughter, will have the half of the inheritance, and the half will also be for the daughter.

11 e Then God – be glorified – explained about the division in case the deceased has no children, but has living father, mother and brother.

11 f Neither sons nor daughters.

11 g And the deceased has one living brother.

11 h So the division will be equal between the father, the mother and the brother: to each will be one third.

But if only one of the parents is living, then his mother [or his father] will have one half of the inheritance and the other half will be for his brother.

11 i And one sixth will be for his father, and to each of his brothers will also be one sixth; therefore, the shares will be equal for each of the father, mother and brothers.
But if one of the parents is living, then to each one of them will be one fifth; i.e. one share will be for the father and to each one of his brothers will be one share, so the total will be five shares; and as such will the division be among them whether the brothers number is more or less: the division between them and the father and the brother will be equal.

While if the deceased has a living father, a living mother but he has neither brother nor sister that are living, then the inheritance will be exclusively for his parents: to be equally divided between them.

11 j And he has no right to bequeath for more than one third of the inheritance, if he has children. This is in case he is not indebted, but if he is indebted then you should pay the debt before carrying out the bequest or will.

11 k That you should pay in case he is indebted.

11 l Your heirs: your fathers and your sons.

11 m i.e. He was and still He is …

11 n About your advantages.

11 o Concerning what He prescribes for you about the division and others.

 

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[Then God – be glorified – explained about the division of the inheritance between wives and husbands:]

[13] 12. And you shall have the half of what [inheritance] your wives leave, if they have no child a;

but if they have a child, then you shall have the fourth of what [inheritance] they leaveb,

after [paying] the bequests they have bequeathed or [paying their] debts.

And [your wives] shall have a fourth of what [inheritance] you leave, if you have no child c;

but if you have a child d, then let them have the eighth of what [inheritance] you [husbands] leave, after [paying] the bequest you have bequeathed or [paying your] debts e. 

f And if a man or a woman passes the inheritance to the old [grandfather and grandmother], and he has a brother or a sister, then each of these two shall have the sixth g,

but if the [brothers] are more [numerous] than that, let them share in the third [of the inheritance] h,

after [paying] the bequest he has bequeathed or [paying his] debts, without prejudice. i

This being a commandment from God j; surely, God is All-Knowing k [and] Most Clement l. 

 

12 a Neither male nor female nor the grandchild; because the statement for the son of the son is like the statement of his father in the inheritance; and if they are many, then they will have the share of their father divided between them.
It means: if she has neither child nor parent: then the half of the inheritance will be for her husband, and the other half will be for her brother.

But if she has one parent and one brother, then her husband will have one third of the inheritance, and one third will be for her parent and the other third will be for her brother.

But if she has father, mother and a brother that are living, then her husband will have the fourth, and one fourth of the inheritance will be for each of these three, but the fourth of the husband will not decrease whatever the number of the brothers is.

12 b And the half will be for her son, and one fourth will be for her parents.

12 c And the rest will be for your parents, brothers and sisters to be divided between them (the parents shall have equal shares, but the brothers and sisters: for the male is double the share of the female), and this is whether she is one wife, two, three or four: the wives shall not have more than that. 

12 d i.e. whether he be son, daughter or son of the son ( i.e. a grandson.)

12 e To be paid for your behalf.

12 f Then God – be glorified – explained the statement of the one who dies having neither child nor parent, but he has a grandfather and a grandmother [that are living]:

12 g And one third will be for his grandfather and one third will be for his grandmother.

It means: the wealth shall be divided into six shares: for his brother one share, for his sister one share, for his grandfather two shares and for his grandmother two shares, so the total shall be six shares.

The reason for that God – be glorified – apportioned the share of the grandfather and grandmother more than the share of the brother and the sister: it is because they are unable to work because of their elderly age, while the brother and sister can work to obtain their livelihood.

While in case there is one brother of the deceased with no sister, then he shall have one third, and one third shall be for his grandfather and the other one third shall be for his grandmother; similarly if there is one sister of the deceased with no brother, then each [of the sister, grandfather and grandmother] shall have one third.

12 h And the other two thirds shall be for the grandfather and grandmother.

12 i i.e. without bequeathing any bequest which may harm the heirs.

It means: he should not bequeath his wealth for one of the heirs and deprive the others of his wealth; and he shouldn't contribute his wealth exclusively for some of imams and sheikhs , and leave his children and relative kindred in need (This is the Waqf: which is the alms dedicated exclusively to imams and sheikhs instead of God); so this is not allowed.

12 j So don't contradict His commands.

12 k About the advantages of His servants.

12 l He does not hasten in affairs.

 

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[14] 13. These a are God's bounds [or stated rules]b; whoso obeys God c and His messengerd, [God] will admit him into f Gardens with rivers flowing, below [their] trees, to be therein forever; that [eternal life] is the supreme success.

 

[15] 14. But whoso disobeys God g and His messenger h, and transgresses His [bounds or] stated rules i, [God] will admit him j into a Fire; to abide therein [forever], and he will have k a humiliating punishment.

 

13 a Statements that We have just explained to you about orphans and the inheritance.

13 b Which God prescribed for you: by assigning to each one his share in the inheritance and he should not take more than it.

13 c Concerning His commands.

13 d Concerning His instructions.

13 f i.e. into the ethereal Gardens or Paradises in the high heavens.

14 g Concerning His commands.

14 h Concerning His instructions.

14 i By taking, of the inheritance, more than his stated share.

14 j On Judgment Day.

14 k In the Barzakh world or the afterlife (: the spirit–world following death.)

 

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[16] 15. Such of your women [: wives] as commit adultery, call [O judges] to witness against them four of you [Muslims];

and if these [witnesses] do witness a, then detain them in the houses [of women-jails, for seven days and nights, without food and drink] until [after elapsing of this period] death overtakes them or God appoints for them some [other] way [: to be released – if still living – after elapsing of the stated period.] b

 

15 a Or she admits, with her own words, that she committed adultery.

15 b So if the married woman commits adultery, and that is confirmed by four witnesses or she admits it; then before anything else, her husband should divorce her and she should not receive any part of the dowry whether it be the "dowry in advance" or the "postponed dowry"; then she should be imprisoned in a house special for this purpose, and her imprisonment should last for continuous seven days and seven nights during which she should not be given neither food nor water, in order that she may die from starvation and thirst; then when the seven days and nights pass, the door of the house is to be opened; so that if she is found dead, then she will have died with her guilt, but if she is found still living, she will be released; but she will not return to her first husband because she will have been defiled.

And if she repeats the adultery, then her punishment is the execution by pelting with the stone.

 

The indication that her imprisonment should be for seven days is the Arabic word Γσζϊ  in the aya, which means: (or God appoints for them some [other] way); so, if we calculate it by the Jumal or the numerical value of the letters, the result will be seven.

The second indication is the story of Abu Lubaba when he betrayed and pointed to the Jews implying that their sentence will the slaying in case they agree about the decision of Sa'ad: so Abu Lubaba stayed for seven days and seven nights without eating and drinking until God turned towards Him.

 

However, the room, where the women, who commit adultery, are to be imprisoned, should be built inside the jail, and its building should be firm and strong: one room inside another, with no more than only one window for air ventilation; so that none can throw to her food or drink; and there should be guard assigned in charge of her.

 

Moreover, the judge should increase the punishment of the married adulterer, and decrease the punishment of the adulterer who is a bachelor and not married.

 

In addition, he should increase the punishment of the adulterer who commits adultery with a married woman who has a husband, and should decrease the punishment of the adulterer who commits adultery with an adulterous woman.

 

Anyhow, the statement of each one of these will be explained later on, by God's will.

 

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[17] 16. And those [of either sex] among you, [Muslims], who commit the [masturbation], hurt them [with rebuking and censuring words a]; so if they repentb and reform c, then leave them be d; surely, God is Most-Accepting [of the repentance], Most Merciful e.

 

16 a In order that they may not repeat it again.

The "hurting" here means the hurting by words not by hand.

 

While about the homosexual act (or the Sodomy): it is not mentioned in the Quran because the Arab in the pre-Islam ignorance period had not such act; but the statement for the homosexual act is mentioned in the Torah, Book of Levites, chapter twenty:

(If a man lies with a male, as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.)

 

While, in the Islam, their statement is up to the judge who may sentence them to either lashing or imprisonment, as appropriate to the age of either of them: whether he is young or old, married or not married.

While concerning the lesbian act: either of the females shall be lashed with ten lashes.

 

16 b From this habit.

16 c Their acts.

16 d And don't hurt them anymore.

16 e To those who regret.

 

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[18] 17. God surely accepts the repentance a of those who do evil while being ignorant b, then soon afterwards c they turn in repentance; 

it is these [repentants] whose repentance God shall accept; surely, God is All-Knowing d [and] All-Wise e.

 

[19] 18. And in fact, the repentance [accepted by God] is not of those who [go on] doing evil until, when the death [angel] attends upon anyone of them, he says: "I have now repented"; nor yet of those who die while being unbelievers f. For such We have prepared a painful doom [in the Next Life.]

 

 

17 a i.e. the repentance that God, with His favor, has decided to accept.

 

17 b i.e. they commit sins while being ignorant of its punishment and consequences.

Anyhow, man keeps up to being ignorant until he attains the age of forty years, when his reason increases with experience and study and so his ignorance will gradually disappear.

 

17 c i.e. they repent within a short time from the day in which they committed the sin.

 

17 d About the acts of servants and their repentance.

 

17 e Concerning His dealing with them.

18 f And the repentance of such men will not be accepted.

 

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[In the time of the Jahiliah (which is the pre-Islam ignorance period), their custom was that when man dies and his son inherits him, his son would have the wife of his father as inheritance like the money, so he throws his garment on her, and she would be his inheritance: if he likes, he will take her as his wife without dowry, or if he likes, he may give her to another man to marry her and he will take her dowry.

Therefore, this aya was revealed to forbid Muslims from such customs:]

[20] 19. Believers, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their willa; neither trouble them, that you may take away part of [the dowry] you have given them b, –– except where they have been guilty of obvious adultery c.

But consort with them kindly d; for if you hate them e, it may be that you hate something f wherein God may put much good [for you.] g

 

19 a i.e. when they dislike it.

19 b i.e. don't desert your wives, so that neither do you contact them sexually in bed, nor do you divorce them so that they may marry men other than your. You aim from such act in order that you may take possession of part of the dowry which you gave to them.

Their custom was that: when any of them dislikes his wife, he would desert her and would not divorce her unless she gave to him a half of her dowry which he had given to her.

19 c i.e. it is unlawful to you to take any part of their dowry neither to divorce them unless they commit adultery, when then you are allowed to take the dowry from them and to divorce them. This is confirmed by His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 65: 1, which means:

([O husbands] do not turn them out of their houses [by divorce], nor should [your women, of their own accord, demand to be divorced and] go out, except when they commit an obvious indecency.)

19 d By fair 'due expenditure' [: the Nafaqa] for them, by passing the night with them and speaking to them kindly.

19 e Because they are ugly.

19 f Within yourselves.

19 g By that He may provide for you, from them, with some righteous sons to benefit you in your elderly, or one of them may die and her husband inherits her, or one of you may suffer disease or prison and then his wife will serve him.

 

This is a story that I tell you to confirm the part of the aya, which means:

(It may be that you hate something wherein God may put much good [for you.])

One of our neighbors was a woman disobedient to God, and she used to give birth once to a male child and the next time to a female child; so she hated her last pregnancy because she thought that – as usual – she would this time give birth to a female child.

So she tried by all means to abort her fetus, but she couldn’t achieve that:

She went to a female doctor in Baghdad and told her: "I will give you one hundred dinars [which equal more than three hundred dollars at that time] if you make me abort the fetus which is in my womb!"

The female doctor said to her: "I will never do that unless your husband agrees, lest I should be responsible before the court of justice."
 

But the woman knew that her husband does not agree about that, so she carried a heavy bag which he bought for her in Baghdad; she carried that bag to the major bus station, and she didn't agree that her husband may carry the bag or take a taxi to the bus station; therefore, by this way, she started to have bleeding from the womb, that is in order to abort her fetus.

But as God wanted this fetus to survive, because her husband was a righteous man, so He showed to him a dream in his sleep that:

Two women were strangling a male fetus by a band which they wrapped around his neck: one of them was pulling that band from one side, while the other woman was pulling in the opposite direction in order to strangle that fetus.

So the man awoke from sleep startled; he told his wife about his dream, and said to her: Your fetus is not a female, but is a male.

Then he went to the pharmacy to bring some medical drugs, which she took; so the bleeding stopped, and her fetus was not aborted.

Then when she was delivered of her fetus, she found it a male, so she was delighted with it, and that was good for her in many ways:


First: She did not commit the sin of murdering a human being.

Second: She kept the one hundred dinars which she had decided to give to the female doctor.

Third: She received many birth gifts and presents.

Fourth: She became more favored with her husband and his family because of the fetus to which she gave birth.

This had been at that time, while in the following years there might have been more good and advantages [for her]; and God is All-Knowing of the future outcome.

 

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[21] 20. And if you desire to exchange a wife in place of another a [: like giving your daughter to their son in marriage, and take their daughter to your son in marriage], and you have given to one of them a 'quintar' b [or a large sum of money as their dowry], take of it nothing.

Would you take it by the way of false claiming c and manifest sinning d!?

 

[22] 21. How can you take it [: the money of the dowry], even after each one of you have declared to the other e, and they [: your wives] have taken a binding compact from you f [: as it is written in the marriage certificate]?

 

20 a This is called the "bada'el" [or the ‘substitute’ or a woman instead of another].

It means: if you want to give your daughter in marriage to the son of your neighbor or for another man, so you take his daughter a wife for your son, which is a custom followed by many people:

so that he does not give his daughter or sister as a wife to any man, unless he takes instead of her one of their girls as a wife for him or for his son.

20 b The 'quintar' is forty four kilograms.

20 c By claiming that the money is yours.

20 d If you take it secretly when the wives are unaware, because it will be a stealing, and the thief is a sinner.

21 e i.e the husband admitted and declared, before witnesses, about the money which he gave to his wife as her dowry.

21 f About the money of the dowry which you gave to the wives; and that is the marriage certificate in which the dowry is written.

This statement concerns the wife whose husband did make sexual intercourse with her.

 

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[In the pre-Islam period, they considered it lawful to marry the wife of their father following his death; therefore, God forbade Muslims, from that, in this aya:]

[23] 22. And marry not the [women] whom your fathers married, except what occurred in the past a. Surely, that b is indecent c and hateful [to God], an evil way.

 

[24] 23. Prohibited to you [for marriage] are: –– your mothers, daughters, sisters d; father's sisters, mother's sisters; brother's daughters, sister's daughters; foster-mothers who gave you suck e, foster-sisters; mothers of your wives; your step-daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom you have gone inf, –– no prohibition if you have not gone in g; –– [those who have been] wives of your sons proceeding from your loins h; and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time i, except for what is past [before the Islam j]; for God is Oft-Forgiving k, Most Mercifull.

 

[25] 24. Also [prohibited for you are] women already married m, except those [female war-prisoners] whom your right hands possessn: thus has God commanded you o.

Lawful to you in marriage are all [women] other than those mentioned, [on condition] that you seek them [in marriage] with your wealth p in honest wedlock, not fornicating.

And those, with whom you seek enjoyment by [marrying] the [female prisoners of war whom you own], give to them their dowry q as an obligation. r

And there is no blame on you in what you do by mutual agreement s after the obligationt [has been stated.]

Surely, God is All-Knowing u, Most Wise v.

 

22 a i.e. except that which took place in the time of the Jahiliah or the pre-Islam period, so God will not accordingly punish those who become Muslims and abandoned this custom. 

22 b i.e. taking the wife of your father, as your wife.

22 c i.e. adultery.

23 d Whether she is the daughter of your father or the daughter of your mother.

23 e unless they were few times of suckling, i.e. less than seven times of suckling, then she is not considered as his mother; but if the times of suckling are more than seven then she becomes his mother in suckling (or foster mother) and she is forbidden for him in marriage.

23 f i.e. the daughter of your wife, but she is the seed of a previous husband of your wife, and she grew up in your home, then you are forbidden to marry her because her mother is your wife.

23 g It means: if you make the marriage certificate with a woman, then you divorce her or your wife dies before you have made sexual intercourse with her, and she has a daughter who is the seed of her previous husband, and you want to marry the daughter, then you are not blamed.

23 h If he is your true son, then his wife is unlawful to you; but if he is your adopted one and is not your true son, then no blame on you to marry his wife if he divorces her or he dies.

23 i i.e. you are not allowed to marry two sisters at one time, unless the first one of them dies or you divorce her, then you may marry the second.

23 j about which you are not blamed.

23 k to those who repent.

23 l to believers.

m Whose husband has not divorced her; the husband for her is like the unassailable stronghold.

n i.e. the wives obtained by the captivity; i.e. the women of the idolaters or associaters, whom you took captives by war, then you are not blamed to marry them after they are clear with one menstruation for the non-pregnant woman; while the pregnant: one month after she is delivered of her pregnancy, they may then be married.

o i.e. God prescribed for you the prohibition of what He prohibited and making lawful all that He made lawful to you; so don't contradict it.

24 p Which is the dowry.

24 q That is because the Muslims used to marry the women of the captivity without dowry; therefore, this aya was revealed concerning them.

24 r God prescribed the dowry for every wife even though she is a captive. So the dowry is a duty of the husband that he should give to his wife even though she is a captive.

24 s Concerning the dowry: whether it is much or little.

24 t after stating the sum of the dowry.

24 u About the advantages of His servants.

24 v Concerning what He prescribed for them.

 

However, anyone who claims that the aya implies the “mut’aa”or "enjoyment": i.e. that a man marries a woman for a short period of time, then divorces her, and then she marries another man, and so on many times, then he is a sinner, and such "enjoyment" is forbidden; it is actually a sort of adultery.

 

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[26] 25. But whosoever of you cannot afford the capability a of marrying free believing women that are chaste, b

then [marry] your female slaves that are [righteous] believers c; –– and God knows best about your faith d. 

Some of you proceed from others e; then marry them with permission of their families [who own them]f, and give them their recognized dowry g, [on condition that] they being chaste and not fornicating h, and not receivers of paramours. i 

So when they are isolated [in an isolated place for one month and they have a menstruation and it becomes clear that she is not pregnant, then you may marry her.]

Then if they are found to have committed fornication [before the marriage], then inflict to them j half the penalty [stated] for married free women;

That k is for whosoever of you fears lest he should be compelled [by his lusts into indecency]l; but that you should have patience m is better for you n,

and God is Oft-Forgivingo, Most Mercifulp.

 

[27] 26. God likes to explain to you q, and to acquaint you about the rites of those before your, and to turn towards you s; God is All-Knowing t, Most Wise u.

 

[28] 27. God wants to turn towards you v; but those, [hypocrites] following their lusts, want only to let you deviate with so much deviation w.

 

[29] 28. God wills to alleviate [the statement of marrying the captive woman x] for you; for surely man has been created weak y.

 

25 a i.e. he has not the required wealth or position.

25 b i.e. anyone of you who has not sufficient money or position in order to marry the chaste freewomen that are righteous believers, then let him marry some of the female slaves; because their dowry is less than the dowry of the chaste free women.

25 c i.e. then marry some of your people's female slaves that are righteous believers, after you verify and check about their righteousness and God-fearing.

25 d i.e. you only know the outward, while God knows the true facts.

25 e i.e. don't be proud over and neither disdain marrying the slave, because all of you proceeded from Adam, and your mother is Eve.

 

25 f There are three essential conditions for the true marriage:

First: It should be according to the agreement of the family of the girl.

Second: The husband should bring some witnesses to his marrying the girl.

Third: He should write for her a paper indicating the "postponed dowry", and should give her the "dowry in advance".

Therefore, the marriage is not correct without these conditions, lest the husbands should deny their marriage of these women afterwards.

Many marriages occurred between a man and a woman without neither witnesses to give witness nor any paper of the "postponed dowry", then they denied that they had married those women after they satisfied their lust with them.

 

25 g i.e. give to them their dowry as is [the amount of] the dowry agreeable by people. 

25 h So if you become certain that she is chaste not adulterous, then marry her; but if it is clear to you that she is adulteress, then don't marry her.

25 i i.e. without having any lover with whom she befriends and she loves him and be alone with him in secret; so be cautious from marrying such a slave woman.

25 j which is fifty lashes: fifty lashes for the slave woman who commits adultery; and one hundred lashes for the free woman who has no husband; while the woman married and having a husband and she commits adultery, do not give her any food and drink for continuous seven days and seven nights.

25 k The marrying of the slave woman when there is no capability of wealth or position.

25 l It means: for anyone who fears lest he should be compelled by his lust to commit adultery, so that he will accordingly be punished in this life of the World and in the Next Life.

25 m until God enriches you out of His favor and generosity.

25 n Than marrying slave women.

This is like His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 233, which means:

(Let those, who find not [the wherewithal for] marriage, keep themselves chaste, until God gives them means, out of His bounty.)

25 o To those who repent.

25 p To those who regret.

 

However, if the owner of a servant woman marries her then divorces her, he will not then be allowed to sell her, but he must release her in order that she may marry whomever she likes.

26 q The statements of your religion and your life in the World.

26 r The religious laws of those before you, like the law of Moses and those before him, so that you may not deny that.

26 s Concerning that which you did before the Islam.

26 t About your advantages.

26 u Concerning the religious law that He has prescribed for you.

 

Now, I tell you what is mentioned in the Bible about marrying the female servant taken captive: out of the war prisoners.

It is in the Book of Deuteronomy, chapter 21: He said:

" 10 When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and God your Lord delivers them into your hands, and you carry them away captive,

 11  and see among the captives a beautiful woman, and you have a desire to her, and would take her to you as wife; 

 12  then you shall bring her home to your house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; 

 13  and she shall put the clothing of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in your house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that you shall go in to her, and be her husband, and she shall be your wife. 

 14  It shall be, if you have no delight in her, then you shall let her go where she will; but you shall not sell her at all for money, you shall not deal with her as a slave, because you have humbled her." 

27 v Concerning your acts towards the captive women, before the revelation of this aya.

27 w i.e. they desire that you may incline to marry the captive women immediately without the "Idda" (or the stated time prescribed before the marriage), and that will be a tremendous deviation from the truth to the falsehood.

That is because when the captive women of Autas [near Ta’if in the Battle of Hunayn] were brought, some hypocrites said: "Marry and go in immediately to any woman of them you like."

The believers said: "We will never do so, unless we consult the messenger of God."

So when they consulted him about marrying them, the messenger commanded his crier to cry out:
"Don't marry the pregnant until they give birth, and don't marry the non-pregnant until, by a menstruation, it will obviously be clear that they are not pregnant."

28 x Therefore, He made the "Idda" (or the obligatory period of time before the marriage); He made it only one month for the non-pregnant.

28 y Having a weak will because of his little patience; i.e. if he sees a beautiful woman and he loves her, he may not wait for her until her "Idda" elapses. 

 

[The "Idda" is the obligatory period of time for a woman before marriage (after she is divorced or after her husband dies.)]

 

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[30] 29. Believers, do not devour each other's properties illicitly a; the only permitted is the mutually acceptable transaction b.

And do not kill yourselves [for any reason] c; surely, God is Most Merciful to you d.

 

[31] 30. But whosoever does that e in transgression f and wrongfully g – him We shall roast in a Fire h; and to God it i is an easy matter. j

 

29 a i.e. don't take the property of each other undeservedly; that is like the bribe, the gambling, the usury and other ways of plundering the property of people.

29 b i.e. trading to which you agree with each other.

29 c That is because some people commit suicide for some poverty, affliction, trouble or affliction.
So if some affliction befalls you, don't kill yourself, but ask of God to relieve you from your trouble, affliction and depression; for God – be glorified – said in the Quran 96, which means:

(Surely with the hardship there comes the relief [: God shall help you.] )

And in a parable: "After patience comes the relief."

29 d Therefore, He does not want to let the hardship for you; but He wants to examine you by that: to see you will forbear patiently or you will blaspheme.
That is because the patience will give you more experience in this life of the World and a good outcome, and a recompense and reward in the Next Life.

30 e So that he devours the property of people.

30 f i.e. transgressing on the stated rules of God: like the plundering, robbery and stealing.

30 g Like the bribe, the usury, denying the deputy in trust and others, in addition to the suicide.

30 h On Doomsday.

30 i i.e. the punishment in Fire.

30 j Neither can anyone prevent Him, nor can anyone avert it from him.

 

However, know that this Life of the World is a school for man; because the events and afflictions give him experience and knowledge, so that his mind will gradually increase to become acquainted about many affairs.

 

And if the veil had been removed from man, he would have become certain that in fact there is not any affliction in this life of the World, including even the affliction with death.

 

Example: The dearest thing to man in the World is his little boy, when his age is a few years, because he delights with him and plays with him, so when this son dies, then his death is a great hardship to his parents; but if the veil had been removed from the sight of his father and had known a certain knowledge, then he would have realized that the death of his little son was a blessing and not any affliction in fact. 

 

Dear reader, you may surprise from my words, and say to me: How can the son's death be a blessing?

I say to you: Man does not die, but by death he goes from a material world to an ethereal world; i.e. from the world of bodies to the world of souls; and the spirits of children do not grow, but will remain as were they at the time of their separation from the bodies; and man does not reproduce in the ether world and none will have children except the one that died when he was a little child; therefore, when the father dies, he will find his son there, so he will be delighted with him, and the child will stay with his parents to delight themselves with him and play with him in the world of souls.

So then they will be certain that the death of their son when he was a little boy was a grace from God to them; because if he had not died, they would not have had any child, in the world of souls, with whom they will be delighted; and they will thank God for the death of their son in his childhood.

 

And so on any affliction: if we forbear it patiently, then we will find it in the end a blessing and not any hardship. So take it easy, and don't be sad for anything that you miss, and don't be proud and become a mighty tyrant with anything God may give you.

 

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[When God's word in the Quran 39: 53, which means:
(Surely, God does forgive all sins; surely, He is the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.)

was revealed, some of the prophet companions said: "God's messenger, will God forgive both the minor and major sins?"

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[32] 31. If you [Muslims] avoid the great [sins] which you are forbidden, We will remit from you your venial [sins] a and admit you into an honorable place b [: in Paradise.]

 

31 a It means: if you avoid the major sins, We pardon you the minor sins in case you repent; i.e. if you repent from a minor sin, We accept your repentance and forgive you; but if you repent from a major sin, We will not forgive you concerning it unless the punishment of retaliation is applied to you, in case such a sin requires a stated retaliation punishment, and you return the property and rights of people if you plunder their rights, then you may repent and then We forgive you concerning it.

Therefore, one, who stole some property, has to return the stolen property to its owner from whom he stole that property, then he may repent.

And the one who disobeyed his parents, has to please his parents, then he may repent; the killer has to pay the due money then he may repent; the one who accused the married woman with fornication has to please her by giving her money or doing her a favor until she is pleased with him and forgives him his fault then he may repent; and the one who gave a false witness has to admit the truth before the judge then he may repent; and so on anyone who commits a major sin, has to return the rights of people and then he may repent and his sin may be forgiven; or else it will not.

The major sin is every sin which requires the due retaliation punishment, or it is the plundering of the rights of people.

 

The greatest major sin is >> the joining or associating of others with God [in the worship and glorification].

 

Among major sins are :

>> the killing of a believer,

 

>> taking the usury,

 

>> devouring the property of the orphan,

 

>> accusing a chaste woman with adultery,

 

>> disobeying the parents,

 

>> the fleeing from the war against disbelievers, associaters and atheists; 

 

>> committing adultery with a married woman,

 

>> preventing the woman from marriage,

 

>> stirring the hatred and enmity between two friendly believers,

 

>> deceiving a chaste woman to adultery

 

… and other sins. 

 

31 b For the one who avoids major sins and repents from minor sins.

 

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[33] 32. And covet not the [bounty a] in which God has preferred some of you to others. b

To men a fortune from [the work] that they have earned c, and to women a fortune from [the work] that they have earned d;

[so envy not one another] but ask God of His bounty e;

surely, God is ever Knower f of all things g.

 

32 a Like wealth, women, children and the cattle.

32 b i.e. He gives a surplus to some of you more than He gives to others; so don't desire for that surplus to be yours, because such desiring is some kind of the envy.

32 c By the work of their hands and their toiling.

32 d By the work of their hands. Therefore, do work you yourselves and earn, but don't desire while sitting without work.

32 e And He will give you, but never desire for the wealth of others.

32 f So He guides you to your success and prosperity.

32 g of the affairs of your life in the World.

And it is written in the Torah, in the Ten Commandments:
(You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife: nor his house, nor his field, nor his man-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his.)

 

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[34] 33. To each of [men and women] have We appointed "mastering" concerning [their shares of the inheritance] that parents and near kindred leave.

[Then God recommended that they should give to the slaves their due shares if they exploit them in a trade or a profession:]

And to those [your slaves] with whom you have made a deal, give them their share [of the profit that they gain according to the deal] a;

for surely, God is Ever-Witness over all things. b

 

33 a It means: And those with whom you make a deal to trade for you in a trade or work for you with a profession or a handicraft with which they work and bring to you the money that they gain; therefore, you should give them their due share as have you agreed upon: so if you make a deal with them to give them half of it, then give them half of the profit of the trade and half of the money of their work if they work, but never decrease anything of their due share.

33 b i.e. He is present hearing and seeing, so He will punish you in the Next Life if you don't give their due share.

This is like His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 233, which means:

(As for those [servants and slaves] whom your right hands possess and who demand writing [a contraction of work]: write contraction with them, in case you find them suitable [for that.])

The share of the slave out of their wage will be the half if you don't give him the money capital, and in case you give him the money capital, then he deserves the one third. And all this is in the trading.

 

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[It is mentioned in the book of (Majma’ Al-Bayan about the Quran explanation) by Tousey:

"A man of the 'helpers' of the prophet, [the people of Medina who helped Prophet Mohammed and believed in him], ordered his wife with something and she disobeyed his order, so he smote her face, then her father went to the Prophet (salam to him) and said: 'I gave him my honored daughter in marriage, and he smote her face.'

The prophet said: 'Let her retaliate of him.'

So she went with her father to retaliate of him, but then the Prophet said: 'Come back: this is Gabriel has come to me.'
And God revealed this aya.

And the prophet said: 'We wanted something, but God wanted another thing, and that which God wanted is better.'

So the retaliation was abandoned.]

[35] 34. Men are the 'guardians and guides' of women a, for that God has preferred some of them [the men] to the others [: the women] b, and for that they [: the men] expend out of their wealth c [on the women.] 

Righteous women are therefore 'devoting [themselves exclusively to their husbands apart from others]' d, chastely trustworthy in the absence [of their husbands] as has God [ordered them] to be chastely trustworthy. e 

As for those [women] from whom you fear rebellion f, admonish them g, desert them in bed h and beat them; but if they obey you i, then don't seek any way against them j;

surely, God is All-High, All-Great. k

 

[36] 35. And if you [: judges] fear a breach between the two [: the husband and the wife], bring forth [and send to them] an arbitrator from his people and from her people also an arbitratorl, 

if they m desire to set things right n; God will help them o get together;

surely, God is All-Knowingp, All-Aware q.

 

34 a It means: men are guardians of women: having authority on them to dispose, discipline and teaching, and they guide women to every good and righteousness, and they relieve women of illusions and corrupt beliefs.

34 b i.e. God makes men guardians of women because men have knowledge, reason and wisdom more than women have.

34 c like the dowry, the ‘Nafaqa’ (: the due money) and others.

34 d i.e. they keep themselves chaste in the absence of their husbands, so that they do not betray them neither in their honor nor in their property.

34 e As in the Quran 231, which means:

(And tell the female believers to lower [the gazing of] their sights [away from the unlawful], and to guard their private parts.)

34 f She is the woman that does not obey her husband's orders, but she is proud over him, and she sees herself higher than he is.
It means: if you notice anyone of them does not obey your orders, and you are afraid lest this aversion should grow worse...

34 g with good words and advices.

34 h If the advice and admonition do not influence them; and that is by isolating your beds from their beds, and do not make sexual intercourse with her for one, two or three months; but it is not allowed to avoid her for more than four months; so if she leave her guile and obeys her husband, then that will be the purpose.
But if no benefit from deserting her, then he should inflict her with painful beating, but on condition that he should not fracture any bone, nor any piece of her muscle, nor should he destroy anything of her special senses or anything of her organs:

34 i following their admonishing, deserting them in bed or beating them.

34 j i.e. don't seek any falsehood way to hurt them.

34 k Therefore, you should fear Him and transgress not on them if they obey you.

35 l To stay with the husband and wife in the house for few days in order to see the acts of the husband and the wife, and afterwards they may decide who of them is the transgressor, so they may rebuke and advise him to reform his acts towards his wife and abandon his bad habits so that everything will be at comfort and ease.

35 m The two arbiters.

35 n Between the husband and wife: by advising and guiding them to good relation and to leave the quarrelling and disputing.

35 o i.e. between the husband and wife, with reconciliation.

35 p About the external aspects.

35 q About the internal aspects.

 

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[37] 36. Worship God [alone], and do not associate any [of created things or created beings] with Hima.

Be kind to parents b, and to [your] kindred c, and orphans, and the needy, and [your] relative neighbor, and the [stranger] neighbor beside you, and [your] accompanying comradesd, and the way-farer e, and those [slaves] whom you possess f;

for God loves not the proud g and the boastfulh.

 

[Then God – be glorified – started to dispraise the miser and the niggardly:]

[38] 37. Such as are niggardly i, and bid other men to be niggardly j and themselves conceal the bounty that God has given them k.

We have prepared for the [ungrateful l] disbelievers a humbling chastisement m.

 

[Then God – be glorified – started to dispraise the hypocrites who only show off to others:]

[39] 38. As for those who expend out of their wealth [only to show off] before the eyes of people, but believe not in God and the Last Dayn;

If one's [persisting] companion is the devil, that is the worst [persisting] companion.

[40] 39. What [harm] would it do them if they believedo in God and the Last Day p, and expended [in alms for the sake of God] of what God has provided them with q?

But God is Well-Acquainted of them r.

 

36 a Therefore, don't worship angels, prophets, the Christ, sheikhs, imams or their graves, but consecrate your works exclusively to the sake of God.

36 b In words and acts.

36 c i.e. your relatives.

36 d i.e. your companion in your journey, the worker in your factory, the peasant in your farm, the peasant in your garden, the shepherd of your cattle and others who work for you.

36 e i.e. the traveller, i.e the stranger who is not in connection with his family: you have to be kind to him and be hospitable to him; as such is the guest: for he is away from his family: so you have to be generous and kind to him; the time for hospitability for the guest is three days, after which he only eats food as almsgiving.

36 f And the servants.

36 g over workers, servants and others.

36 h to people, with the wealth that God has given him.

37 i i.e. they don't give any of their money to the poor and needy.

37 j i.e. in order that people may imitate them concerning their stinginess.

 

37 k i.e. if a beggar comes and begs them for some of their money, they will apologize and say to him: We haven't anything to give you.

Such misers and niggardly will be punished in the Next Life.

37 l to God's bounties.

37 m or a humiliating chastisement.

38 n In which the good-doer will be rewarded, and the evil-doer will be punished; and so the devil will be his [persisting] companion after death.

39 o i.e. no harm will touch them if they believe, but the harm is their disbelief and their associating [others with God.]

39 p It is Doomsday; because the earth will tear up on that day, so no day and night will be afterwards.

39 q It means: Had they believed in God and the Last Day and expended in God's way out of the provision provided for them by God, then it would have been better for them.

 

39 r i.e. He is Well-Acquainted of their niggardliness and misery, therefore, he does not guide them to the way of the truth, because they are niggardly and miser, and God dislikes every miser and niggardly one.

 

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[41] 40. Surely, God does not wrong [people] so much as the weight of a minute particle,

and if it a be a good [deed b], He will multiply it [for its doer c], and give from Him [in the Next Life] a great recompense [for the doer of the good deed.]

 

[42] 41. But how [will it be with them: misers and unbelievers among your people] when [on the Day of Judgment] We shall bring forward out of every people [their prophet as] a witness [to bear witness against them d],

and We shall bring you [, Mohammed, as] a witness e against these [unbelievers among your nation]?

 

 [43] 42. On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Apostle [: the Messenger] would fain that the earth were rearranged and leveled with them f, but they can hide no fact g from God.

 

 

40 a i.e. the good deed.

 

40 b the weight of a minute particle.

 

40 c i.e. God will increase it for its doer, so that He gives him his reward in this life of the World and in the Next Life.

 

 

 

41 d Concerning their disbelief, association with God, and denial of the apostles.

 

41 e On Judgment Day.

 

42 f So that they may hide in its caves, caverns and graves as were they hiding before its tearing up; the 'leveling' is the uniting of the earth parts with each other to return as was it before.

 

42 g If the [angels] ask them about it.

That is because the earth will tear up on Doomsday, and the souls will scatter in the space, and no hiding-place will be left for them to hide in it from the sight.

Then when the time of Judgment comes, they will wish that the earth will become as was it before in order to hide themselves from the angels inside it.

 

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[Two  Muslims sat talking in the masjid at night; one of them was feeling sleepiness, then another man came and prayed near them, and he recited in his prayer the soora 109 of the Quran, which means:


(Say: "O unbelievers!" I will never worship [the idols] that you worship [together with God.]..etc.)

So the one sitting said to his sleepy comrade: Can you recite this soora?

He said: "Yes." And he started to recite: "Say: O unbelievers! I will worship [the idols] that you worship [together with God.]"

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[44] 43. Believers, approach not to prayer when being drowsy [from sleepiness] a until b you come to understand [the words] that you utter c,

Nor [should you sit in the masjid] when you are 'unclean' [after sexual intercourse or ejaculation of the semen] – except when you cross [the masjid] on your way d – until you wash [your bodies with water e.]

[Then God – be glorified – explained about the statement when there is no water, and the statement of the patient who may be harmed by the water:]

But when you are ill f, or on a journey g, or some of you comes after relieving nature h, or you may have sexual intercourse [with or without ejaculation of the semen i] but you cannot find water [to wash your bodies therewith], then go to a high [place with] clean dust and rub your faces and your hands therewith j; for God is Most Pardoning k [and] Most-Forgiving l.

 

43 a It means: Don't sit in the masjid (or mosque) near those praying, while you are drowsy from extreme sleepiness.

43 b i.e. so that..

43 c .. you may understand what you rehearse or recite.
For it is narrated from Âyshah that the Prophet – salam to him – said: "If anyone of you feel sleepiness while he is praying, let him go away; for it may be he will pray some words against himself while he is unaware."

The drowsy from sleepiness is in fact like the drunken; moreover, man may be drowsy from worry or from suffering.
God – be glorified – said in the Quran 22: 2, which means:

(and you [man] will see men drunken, yet they be not drunken; but dreadful will be the chastisement of God.)

Moreover, it is said to the one who is unaware: "You are drowsy or drunken."

As God – be glorified – said in the Quran 15: 72, which means:

(Then the angels said to Lot: "[May God grant] you long life! They do move blindly in their confusion.")

 

43 d So in this case you are allowed. While it is not allowed to sit in the masjid (or the mosque) while man is unclean from sexual contact.

43 e In order to be clean from the act of sexual contact or the ejaculation of semen. And then you are allowed to sit in the masjid.

43 f With a disease which may be worsened by the water.

43 g i.e. travellers when you don't find water in the way of your journey.

43 h The word indicates the low place, and it implies the relieving of nature; because if man is in a desert and he wants to relieve nature, he may sit in a low place, in order to hide from the sight of people.

43 i he should also wash, even if no semen is ejaculated from him.

43 j And that is to spread your hands and hit the dust once and rub your face with it, and another hit with which you rub your hands.

43 k So that He allowed you that, and made the matter easy to you.

43 l Of the mistake and negligence.
But when the water is available then the rubbing with the dust should not be done, except for the patient who may be harmed by the water; therefore, if there is a wound in your face which may be worsened by the water, then use the rubbing with dust and pray, and if the wound is in one of your hands or feet, then wash with water but rub over the dressing which is over the wound, and then pray.

 

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[45] 44. Haven't you [Mohammed] considered how these [Jews] who received [the Torah which is] part of the [heavenly] scripture, purchase error a, and they desire you may err from the [right] way b!?

 

[46] 45. But God knows better [than you, believers, do] about your enemies c;

God suffices d as a Patron; God suffices e as a Helper.

 

 

44 a Instead of guidance. So that if you ask them about anything; then instead of telling you the correct thing, they misguide you away from the truth.

 

44 b And then they will be glad with that; because they are your enemy.

 

45 c Therefore, don't ally with them, don't consult them and don't seek after their help.

 

45 d rather than they do as patrons.

 

45 e rather than they do as helpers.

 

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[47] 46. Among those who are Jewish, some distort the words from their context a,

and they say, b: "We hear, and we rebel c "; "Listen [to us], but to you we do not listen d " and " Ra'ena [: Be careful to us, O careless!] e ": distorting [the words] with their tongues and traducing religion f.

Had they g said: "We hear [your words] and we obey [your order]", "Listen [to our words], and "Wait: let us understand what you say [instead of their saying Ra'ena]", it would have been better for them h and more proper i.

But God did curse them j because of their infidelityk; and consequently, they will not believe [in you, Mohammed] save only a few [of them.] l

 

46 a So that they revile instead of praising.

46 b When they hear the words of the messenger (or the apostle.)

46 c i.e. they say overtly : we hear; but secretly they say: we disobey.

46 d i.e. they say: listen to us, Mohammed! But within their hearts they say: we don't listen to you.

46 e i.e. give to us respite that we may understand what you say; but they actually mean with such word: the foolishness.

46 f Which you, Muslims, follow.

46 g i.e. these Jews.

46 h Than what they said.

46 i Than their reviling.

46 j i.e. God drove them away from His mercy.

46 k i.e. because of their disbelief in God and their worshipping the Baal, the idols and Astaroth.

46 l And it was as had God foretold about them, so that only few of them believed: they were Abdullah son of Salam and his companions. 

 

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[Then God – be glorified – addressed the Jews, residing in the Medina city, with threatening and warning:]

[48] 47. O you [Jews] who were given the [Heavenly] Book [: the Torah]!

Believe in [the Quran] that We have revealed [to Mohammed], confirming the [monotheism a] which you had previously [received];

before We destroy [your] chiefs and make them perish [: make them run away] turning their backs [at fighting b] or curse them c as did We curse the Sabbath-breakers d;

for God's will e is going to be fulfilled f.

 

47 a Which is the ‘exclusive devotion to God alone’, and the discarding of idols, as written in your Torah.

47 b It means: if armies of Jews fight you, We will turn them on their backs, running away from you. This is like His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 51: 45, which means:

(Certainly the multitude [and majority] shall be defeated [in the battle], and turn their backs [running away.])

47 c i.e. Or We will banish and drive them in exile away from the Medina city; the "cursing" here means: the driving away and banishing.

47 d i.e. as did We banish and drive away their ancestors who broke the Sabbath. Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon banished them from Palestine when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath.

Afterwards, the promise of God was fulfilled concerning the perishing of their chiefs, when their leaders Huyay son of Akhtab and Ka’ab son of Ashraf were killed, and the prophet banished the tribe of Banu Nadhir from the Medina city, and they went to Syria.

47 e Concerning the perishing of their chiefs or their banishing.

47 f i.e. it will inevitably take place.

 

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[When His saying – be glorified – in the Quran was revealed 39: 53, which means [Say: "O My servants, who have been extravagant [in sins] against their own souls! Despair not of God's mercy [and forgiveness]; [for] surely, God does forgive all sins; surely, He is the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful], and the Prophet recited it on the pulpit, a man stood up and asked him: "Does this include the association with God also?"

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[49] 48. God does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him a, but forgives b anything short of that c, to whomsoever d He pleases.

Whoso associates [anything] with God, he has indeed invented e a great sin. f

 

48 a It means: God does not forgive the associaters their sins, even though the sins are minor sins; that is because the association is the greatest major sin.

48 b to monotheists (who exclusively devote themselves to worship God alone.)

48 c i.e. anything short of the association. It means: God forgives the monotheists (who exclusively devote themselves to worship God alone) even though their sins are the major sins, but on the conditions which we mentioned in the interpretation of His saying in this soora 31, which means:

(If you [Muslims] avoid the great [sins] which you are forbidden, We will remit from you your venial [sins.])

48 d i.e. to whomever is worthy of the forgiveness.

48 e By claiming that the peers intercedes with God for his behalf, and by this way he has sinned a great sin that is unforgivable.

 

48 f Here I ask you, noble reader, this question:

Are you one of the monotheists (who exclusively devote themselves to worship God alone), so that you will receive forgiveness, or are you one of the associaters and you will lose the prosperity in the paradises [in heaven?]

 

I say: Nowadays, most people are associaters [i.e. they worship God, when their worship is not pure for God alone, but they join or associate others with Him], while they don't know that they follow the association or idolatry program, but they think themselves rightly guided and that they are working according to the true and correct way.

Regarding such people and their like, God – be glorified – said in the Quran 18: 103-104, which means:

(Say: "Shall we tell you who will be the greatest losers of [the reward of] their works?" [They are] those whose efforts in the Worldly life will be lost, while they think that they do good work.)

It means: They work righteous work and expend, but they do not make such work exclusive for God alone, and they associate – concerning their work – others with God; therefore, they lose their deeds which go the way of winds, and they will not be rewarded for them; because they – concerning their deeds – associated the creatures with the Creator.

Moreover, if you ask anyone of such men: Why do you associate [with God]?

He will answer you: I don't associate anyone with my Lord!

Then if you say to him: Why do you worship the idol or the cow or anything else?

He will say: These are only our intercessors before God.

Therefore, he thinks that he is a monotheist (who exclusively devote himself to God alone,) and that he only respect and sanctify this creature in order to intercede with God for him; so when they are asked on Judgment Day about their association, they will say: "By God, our Lord, we never associated [other gods with You.]"

 

One of the servants, [of the shrines at Karbala], said that he travelled to India, and saw a people worshipping the cow, and he said to one of them: “Do you think that this cow is your god so that you worship it?”

He said: “No, God is my Lord, Who created me and provided for me.”

He said: “Then why do you worship this cow?”

He said: “Listen to me that I may let you understand.”

He said: “I am listening to you.”

He said: “We are mortals, and is there any mortal who does not commit any sin?”

I said: “No, all of us are sinners.”

He said: “Has this cow any sin?”

I said: "It is only an animal, and the animal has no ritual duties that it may contradict so as to sin"

He said: “So this cow is nearer to God than myself is; because it has not sinned, while I sinned; therefore, I make it my intercessor before God for my behalf.”

 

Therefore, these are some falsehood doctrines which they found their fathers following, and so they followed in their footsteps, and said: “We have found our fathers doing like this, and we only follow their footsteps.”

 

Now, I ask you some checking question, to check yourself with them. Then after the checking, contemplate and think about your beliefs, to know within yourself: are you a monotheist (devoting yourself exclusively to God alone) or are you one of the associaters? So if you find yourself a monotheist then say:

"Praise be to God Who has guided us to this [religion of truth]; for we should not have been guided, had not God guided us [with His favor and surplus on us.]”

But if you find yourself one of the associaters then abandon the association and don't hold fast with the fanatic way of thinking, or else you will lose; but be one of monotheists (devoting yourself exclusively to God alone), and then you will prosper in both this life of the World and the Next Life.

 

First: See are you a blind follower or a thinker?

So if you are a blind follower then forsake the blind following of others, but use your reason and think in every subject, because the blind follower is like the blind whom they guide and he does not know where they take him; while the thinker sees his way and walks along it and knows where the way will end.

God – be glorified – in the Quran, dispraised the blind followers and praised the thinkers and the wise; so He said – be glorified – about the dispraise of the blind followers, in the Quran 43: 23, which means:

(“We have found our fathers following [the program of] a sect, and we – after them – are following [their same program.]”)

So God replied to them by His saying in the next aya 43: 24, which means:

([And the warner] said [to them]: “What! Even if I have brought you a better guidance than that you found your fathers following?” [So follow my way and leave the falsehood way of your fathers.]')

 

Moreover, God – be glorified – said in the Quran 2: 170, that means

(What if their fathers did not understand, and were not guided [to the truth]?)

 

Then God – be glorified – explained that, in the Next Life, the leaders will disown their followers, and He said in the Quran 2: 166, that means:

([In the spirit-world] when [leaders and religious scholars] who were followed [in the life of the World, and who invited people to the alleged rivals of God], [shall] disown [their] followers,

and they [shall] see the punishment [with their own eyesights],

and all their efforts [to escape the punishment] shall collapse with them.)

 

While God – be glorified – praised the thinkers in the Quran 15: 75, which means:

(Surely in that [event] are signs for such as ‘investigate and deduce’ [lessons from the ruins and stories of those who denied the messengers.])

 

In addition, God – be glorified – said in the Quran 13: 4, that means:

(In that, are indicative signs to a people who discern [and think.])

 

Moreover, God – be glorified – said in the Quran 2: 219, which means:

(As such does God explain to you the signs [of revelation] that you may contemplate [the affairs of your religion])

 

And God – be glorified – said in the Quran 10: 24, which means:

(Even so We do expound the revelations to those who reflect [at various subjects to realize the truth.])

 

Therefore, be a thinker but don't be a blind follower and then you will lose.

 

Second: See and contemplate about yourself and your beliefs: Are you one of those who take for himself some intercessors in order to intercede for his behalf before God? So that he relies on the intercession [or redemption]; and of those who take for himself some patrons to bring him close to God: so that he will neglect about some of the obedience to God, as did Quraish say about the angels, as God told us in the Quran 39: 3, which means:

(We worship them only that they may bring us close to God in honor!)

 

Or do you direct your purpose to God alone, and take His mercy as the intercessor, and your devotion to God alone as the means that bring you close to Him?

For God – be glorified – said in the Quran 39: 53, which means:

(Say: "O My servants, who have been extravagant [in sins] against their own souls! Despair not of God's mercy; [for] surely, God does forgive all sins; surely, He is the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.)

Moreover, God – be glorified – said in the Quran 2: 186, which means:

(And when My servants ask you [Mohammed] concerning Me, I am always Near; I answer the prayer's prayer when he prays to Me.)

 

And He said also in the Quran 40: 60

(And your Lord says: “Pray to Me; I will answer your prayer.)

 

Ali son of Hussein, who is surnamed Zain Al-‘Aabidien, said in his prayer known as the prayer of Abu Hamza Al-Thumaly:

"Praise be to God Whom I call whenever I like to grant me my need, and be alone with Him in secret without any intercessor or mediator, and He will grant to me my need; and praise be to God Whom I pray and I don't pray anyone else, for even if I pray anyone other than Him, the other cannot grant to me my request."

 

Therefore, contemplate the words of Zain Al-Aabidien and learn from him, for he said:" without any intercessor (or mediator), and He will grant to me my need", then he said: " and praise be to God Whom I pray and I don't pray anyone else."

 

So if you prayed anyone else than God to give you your request, this "other" cannot answer your prayer, and moreover, God – be glorified – does not agree about that and will not grant you your requests; because you asked your need from the creature and forsake the Creator.

God – be glorified – said in the Quran 7: 194, which means:

(Those whom you pray, besides God, are servants [of God] just like you. So, now, pray them [to anything] and let them grant you [your request] if you do speak the truth.)

Quraish tribe worshipped angels, in the 'Jahiliah' or the pre-Islam ignorance period, and they asked their needs from the angels; God – be glorified – said in the Quran 35: 13-14, which means:

(And If you [associaters] pray them [: the angels, to remove your distress], they hear not your prayer [because they are in the ethereal heavens faraway from you.]

And if they [: those angels present with you on earth] hear, they cannot grant it you [because they do not do anything without God’s command.]

On the Day of Judgment, they will disown your associating [them with God.])

 

And it is mentioned in the holy tradition, that God – be glorified – said: (Moses, ask of me, even though it be some salt for your food.)

It means: Ask your need from Me, and don't ask anyone else, even though your need is trivial.

 

So if you ask your need from God, and do not ask others whether they are sheikhs, imams or prophets, then God will turn to you with mercy, and boast to the angels about you, and say: See, O My angels, My servant: He knew Me and My might so He turned his purpose to Me, and asked of Me his need, and he did not ask anyone else.

 

Now I give you some parables, which I mention to you to be certain:

If you sit in a coffee shop together with a group of men, including one of your friends, and you speak in some of your affairs, and you are rich and you have your dignity, then all of a sudden your son comes and salutes your friend and says: "Uncle, give to me a coin so that I buy something with it."
Then what will your reaction be at that time? And what will you do to him? Will you accept that of him, or refuse?

Of course you will refuse that your son takes some coins from your friend or from someone else and you are sitting; therefore, you say to your son: Why do you ask some coins from this man while I am present, so am I unable to grant you your request, and have I left you without money even for one day, and have I let you be hungry without food even for one day, then who – apart from me – takes care about your growing and gives you food and drink? Who gives you clothes and your needs and all that you like and desire? Why don't you ask from me and I will give you? Aren't you ashamed of yourself?

So you will start to rebuke and discipline him so that he will not repeat that act again.  

But if your son says: I did not ask my need from a stranger, but he is your friend,

you will say to him: I don't accept that you may ask of anyone even though he is my friend.

 

Therefore, similarly God does not accept that you ask your need from any creature, even though he may be a prophet, an apostle or an honored angel; because if you do that, God will say to you: You have forsaken Me and gone to ask your need from a creature who is like you; don't you know that he is unable to grant you your request? Don't you know that I Am the All-Able to do anything? Weren't you a little child and I reared you? Weren't you naked and I dressed you? Weren't you hungry and I satiated you? Weren't you weak and I strengthened you? Have I left you one day without food, when you were sleeping in the craddle and unable to speak, haven't I made your parents kind to you? Haven't I made the food available by your hands. So woe to you, and shame on you if you ask your need from anyone apart from Me.

 

Third: See and contemplate about your deeds: do you devote them exclusively to God alone, or do you associate one of the sheikhs, imams, prophets or other God's righteous servants?

So if you make your deeds dedicated to God alone, He will accept that from you and reward you for them. But if you associate, concerning them, any creature, then God will not accept them from you, neither will He reward you for them. 

But God will accept the deed which is dedicated exclusively for Him: like the expenditure for the sake of God, seeking help of God, vowing to God, glorifying God, and so on.

So if you expend out of your money for the sake of God, then God will accept it from you, reward you for it, and recompense you instead of it: ten folds in this life of the World and seven hundred folds in the Next Life.

While if you expend for the sake of sheikhs, imams, prophets, angels, or the righteous; or if you make the expenditure shared between God and one of the patrons, then God will not accept it from you, neither will He reward you for it, but will punish you according to it; because you expended for the sake of those apart from Him, and you associated with Him one of the righteous men.

Had the prophets been present with us in this life of the World and we expend out of our money to help and aid them, we shall be rewarded for that, but the prophets and the righteous went to the neighborhood of their Lord to prosper in His paradises; therefore, they don't need money nor food, and they even are not aware of the expenditure of people for their sake. 

 

An example of that: A man built a Husseiniah, and wrote on its gate (masjid and Husseiniah), so he associated Hussein with God concerning his expenditure.

 

Similarly, the vowing to sheikhs, imams or prophets: it is not allowed, so if you vow for anyone apart from God, then you are a sinner and you will not be rewarded for it.

As such if you dedicate an endowment for anyone else than God: God will not accept it from you, neither will He reward you for it, but will punish you.

 

Moreover, seeking the assistance of sheikhs, imams or prophets is not allowed; therefore, when anyone stands and sits seeking the help of anyone else than God, he will associate him with God.

Anyhow, we should work according to the program of these righteous men, and imitate them, but not to contradict them concerning their program; because they sought help of God when they stand, sit and lie in bed; therefore, God praised them and said in His Glorious Book: the Quran 3: 191, which means:

([Those] who remember God when they stand up, sit down and recline [in bed], and contemplate in the creation of the heavens and the earth.)

 

And He revealed about them in the Quran 76: 8, that means:

(And they feed, for the love of [God], the needy, the orphan and the captive ––)

So contemplate His saying – be glorified – (for the love of [God]); and that He did not say: for the love of the prophets and the righteous; as is it indicated by His saying – be glorified – in the next aya, which means:

([Saying to them:] "We feed you only for the sake of God [and in His way]; we desire no recompense from you, nor gratitude.")

 

Therefore, if you vow to sheikhs or prophets or seek their help when you stand and sit, and you expend your wealth for their sake, or you sanctify their graves, and seek blessing with them, then you are an associater. Then, forsake such habits and let your acts be exclusively devoted to the sake of God alone, and you will then succeed and prosper in both this life of the World and the Next Life.

 

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[50] 49. Haven't you [Mohammed] seen those [Christians] who claim forgiveness for themselves a?

Not so, but God offers forgiveness [of sins] to whomsoever He pleases [to forgive] b,

and they will not be wronged even it be a 'fateil' [: a minute plant seed.]

 

[And clergies said: God permitted us to forgive the sinner, so God denied their words:]

[51] 50. See [Mohammed] what a lie c have they invented against God! And this [lie] by itself suffices for a manifest sin.

 

 

49 a of sins; i.e. they forgive the sins of each other.


Among the habits of Christians and their traditions, that the sinner among them goes to the clergy to confess his sins to him, and the clergy will forgive him his sins and pardons him.


So God – be glorified – rejected their deeds and demeaned their doctrines:

 

49 b And the forgiveness is not up to clergies, so God will punish them in the Next Life according to their acts.

 

50 c With such words.

 

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[Abu Sufyan asked some Jews: "What do you think about Mohammed: is he insane or is he a scholar?"

They said: "He is only a scholar that studied [the Torah!]"

He said:" Is he more knowledgeable or are your scholars?"

They said: "Our scholars, particularly the priest Huyay son of Akhtab and Ka'ab son of Ashraf, are more knowledgeable."

He said: "Which is true: his religion or your religion?"

They said: "The true is our religion."

He said: "Is his Quran of his own accord, or is it a revelation from heaven?"

They said: "Had it been any revelation, it would have been revealed to us; for we are more worthy of the revelation than he is; and had it been any prophecy, it would have been within us."

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

 

[52] 51. Haven't you [Mohammed] regarded those [Jews] who were given a portion of the [Heavenly] Book [: the Torah], [how] they believe a in the priest [: Huyay, the son of Akhtab] and the tyrant [: Ka'ab, the son of Ashraf], and [how] they say to the disbelievers b: "These [Jewish priests] are more rightly guided than those [Mohammed and his companions] who believe c."

 

[So God denied their claim, disapproved their words and cursed them in this aya:]

[53] 52. It is these [ Jews: Huyay, Ka'ab and their followers] whom God has cursed d;

and anyone whom God curses e, you will not find for him any helper [to save him from God's punishment.]

 

[Then God – be glorified – explained about the stinginess of Jews and their envying the messenger of God:]

[54] 53. f Or have they [Jews] a portion of the kingdom? Then g they would not give to people [: the Arab] even a jot h.

[55] 54. Or do they envy the people [: the Arab] for [the bounties] that God has given them out of His favor i ?

But We have already given the family of Abraham the Book j and wisdom k, and given to them a great kingdom l.

[56] 55. And of [Jews] are [some] who have believed in the [Quran], and of them are [some] who have turned away from it m; but Hell is sufficient for [their] burning n.

 

51 a i.e. they believe in their scholars and blindly follow them, even though they are in error, and in spite of that they sanctify them, and in particular the priest Huyay, the son of Akhtab.

51 b Abu Sufyan and his companions, when these asked them: Which has more knowledge: Mohammed or your scholars? So they answered:

51 c and they have more knowledge than Mohammed and his companions have.

52 d i.e. God has removed them far away from His mercy and decided that they deserve the punishment.

52 e i.e. Anyone whom God removes far away from His mercy.

53 f It implies: Is the earth, and all that on it, their own possession, so they dispose in it as they like, and they want the revelation to come down on them, but not on others, or they have a share with Us in the kingdom, therefore, they object to us about the revelation to Mohammed? 

53 g if the kingdom was by their hands,

53 h i.e. the amount that the a bird may peck; this is a parable of the Arab to indicate the little amount.

54 i For that He sent them an apostle (or a messenger) out of themselves, and gave them the Quran.

54 j i.e. the Torah to Moses, and the Psalms to David.

54 k To Luqman [: Tobias]; but they did not work according to the Torah of Moses, neither did they listen to the Psalms of David, nor did they receive the admonition of the wisdom of Luqman [: Tobias].

54 l i.e. much possession, but their kings did not thank God for the kingdom that God gave to them: on the contrary, they disbelieved and invited their peoples to the association with God, so they changed their religion, altered their religious laws and associated others in the worship of their Lord, so they worshipped the Baal, Astaroth, the star Sirius and the two gold calves made for them by Jeroboam.
The meaning:  Why do you envy the Arab, for that We revealed the Quran to Mohammed? Didn't We give to the Children of Israel: the Torah to Moses, the Psalms to David, the Wisdom to Luqman [: Tobias]? While Jews did not hold fast with the Law of Moses, neither did they work according to his Torah, but they changed its statements: so they associated with God frequently, and worshipped the idols many times and killed the prophets publicly; so God refused them and chose the Arab instead of them.
The kings of the Children of Israel who associated with God, were fifteen kings: the first of them was Jeroboam son of Nebat who made for them two gold calves and commanded his people to worship them, and the last of them was Zedekiah who was killed by Nabuchodonosor the king of Babylon.
Their names and stories are mentioned in the Bible, First and Second Books of Kings.

 

Moreover, Jesus Christ warned them that the revelation will be shifted from them to the Arab nation, as in the Gospel of Matthews, chapter twenty one; he said:

"Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and will be given to a nation bringing forth its fruits"; i.e. to a nation working according to it.   

55 m i.e. from the Quran, and have not believed in it.

55 n For those who turned away from it and did not believe in it.

 

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[57] 56. Surely, they who disbelieve in Our [Quranic] revelations a, We will broil them with fire b,

whenever their skins will be roasted c, We will exchange them for other skins, that they may taste the torment.

Surely, God is Ever Mighty [in His kingdom]d [and] All-Wise [with His work and acts. e]

 

[58] 57. And those that believe f, and do [deeds of] righteousness: We shall admit them [in the Next Life] to gardens with rivers flowing below their [trees], therein dwelling forever and ever g; therein for them shall be spouses purified [from menstruation h and from all dirts i], and We shall admit them to a [shelter of] persistent shade j.

 

56 a And did not believe Mohammed to whom the Quran was revealed.

56 b In which they will suffer.

56 c In the fire.

56 d He takes revenge on those who disbelieve in His signs and revelations and deny His apostles.

56 e Know then that the punishment in the Next Life will exclusively be for souls, not for bodies; because bodies will disperse inside graves, will be rotten, and will not be needed anymore.

The "skins", which God – be glorified – mentioned in this aya, are the ethereal skins; and for this reason, God called them "skins" and did not call them "bodies"; as is it indicated in His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 10: 92, which means:

(But today We save you with your [huge fat] corpse, that you[r body] may become an indicative sign [of Our truthfulness] to those [coming] after you.)

 

This is confirmed by His saying – be glorified – in this aya 56, which means:

(Whenever their skins will be roasted.)

So had He meant the "bodies", He would have said: Whenever their bodies are burnt, We will exchange them for other bodies.

That is because if the material bodies are inflicted by the fire of the World, they will burn, and become coal; then how about the fire of Hell; and moreover they won't burn, but only will be roasted; and the roasting is less than the burning; the roasting is the cooking; the "roasted" is the cooked which is suitable for eating.

An example for that:

Take a thick piece of iron and put it in a moist place, you will see it oxidized having a brownish crust which is the iron oxide; then put it in the fire, and you will find the crust will be removed from it.

Afterwards, once again put it in a moist place and it will again be oxidized by the combination of the oxygen with the iron, then put it in the fire to find that its crust will be removed.

And as such can we repeat this procedure many times to find that the iron does not burn, but the fire will only consume the part of it which has been oxidized.

So similarly, souls do not burn in the fire, because they are ethereal, that cannot be burnt, but they will suffer from it and their pain will increase because of the changing of their [ethereal] skins. 

57 f In that which God revealed to His apostle or messenger.

57 g i.e. they will not be driven out of such gardens.

57 h And from the dirt of the woman in childbed.

57 i Because they are ethereal souls.

57 j On which sun rays do not move, as is the shade of the World, but it is constant all the time.

 

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[59] 58. God commands you to make over trusts to their owners, and when you judge between men: you must judge with justicea.

Surely, excellent is [the statement] that God admonishes you with; surely, God is All-Hearing b and All-Seeingc.

 

[60] 59. Believers, obey God d and the messengere and those of you f who are in authority g;

and if you have any dispute concerning any matter h, refer it to God and the messenger i if you [truly] do believe in God and the Last Day [: Doomsday j.] k

That l is better m and more seemly in the endn.

 

58 a i.e. you must not incline, in judgment decision, to anyone of the two opponents.

58 b Of your words when you say the sentence and judgment.

58 c Of your inclination to justice or injustice.

59 d About what He bid and forbid you.

59 e About his instructions and teachings.

59 f The believers who work according to the Quran and the religion statements.

59 g i.e. if these are Muslims and believers; because the addressing is to the believers; as it is at the start of the aya.

59 h of the affairs of your religion or your World.

59 i i.e. you should refer it to God's Book: the Quran, if the messenger is not present with you; but if the messenger is present, then he will judge between you; this is in his time.

While nowadays, the messenger died and went to the neighborhood of his Lord, but the Book has remained with us, then we should refer our dispute to the Book of God to judge between us.

And as regards the narrated prophetic traditions: they are unreliable; because most of the traditions are fabricated, and so Muslims have divided into many divisions;

therefore, we should accept every prophetic tradition which agrees with the Quran, while we should not accept any prophetic tradition which does not agree with the Quran.

59 j Refer to the aya 38 in this soora, [which explains that the Last Day is Doomsday.]
59 k Because anyone believes in God, will accept the statement of the Quran and will not object to it.

59 l This is related to the refering to the Book of God and the acceptance of His statement.

59 m for you than the disputing and dissension among yourselves.

59 n i.e. and leads to better consequences.

 

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[A Muslim [who was a hypocrite] and another man who was a Jew had some discord; the hypocrites said to their comrade: Go for judgment against the Jew, to their chief Ka'ab son of Ashraf who will give sentence to your side; but the Jew refused to go to Ka'ab for judgment, and said: "No, we should go to Mohammed for Judgment."

And they came to God's messenger who judged for the Jew; the thing which the hypocrite did not accept; and he said to the Jew: "Let us go to Omar for judgment."

The Jew said to Omar: "God's messenger has judged for my behalf, but my opponent does not accept his judgment."
Omar said to the hypocrite: "Is this right?"

He said: "Yes."

Omar said: "Stay for a while here, till I come out for you."

So Omar went into his house, took his sword, then he came out and cut off the head of the hypocrite, and said: "As such do I judge for one who does not accept the judgment of God and His messenger."

Afterwards, when the hypocrites - who deceived the man and said to him: "Go to Ka'ab for judgment" - heard about this, they came apologizing to the Prophet.

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[61] 60. Have you [Mohammed] not seen those [hypocrites] - who pretend that they believe in that [Quran] which is revealed to you [Mohammed] and the [Heavenly Book] which was revealed before you - how they would go for judgment [about their discords] to the tyrant a [Ka'ab, the son of Ashraf] when they have been ordered to reject him b? Satan [with his deception] would mislead them far astray [from the truth.]

 

[62] 61. And when it is said to them [: the hypocrites]: "Come to [the statements] that God has revealed [in the Quran], and to [the judgment of] the messenger", you [Mohammed] see the hypocrites turn [to somebody else] away from you in aversion.

 

[63] 62. How would it be [with them], if a misfortune [: the slaying of their comrade] befalls them because of the [hypocrisy and deceptionc ] which their own hands have sent [to the Next Life] before them?

They would then come to you [Mohammed] swearing by God [saying]: "[By referring to the judgment of those other than you], we meant no more than good will d and conciliation e."

 

[64] 63. Those – God knows what [hypocrisy] is in their hearts; so leave their [punishment], admonish them f and say to them effective words concerning themselves [: that they should reform themselves and abandon their hypocrisy.]

 

[65] 64. We did never send [before you, Mohammed,] any messenger [to his people] but only that he should be obeyed g with God's permission h;

and if they i, after having wronged themselves j, had come to you [Mohammed] and had asked God forgiveness, and the messenger [too] had asked forgiveness for them, then they would have found God Most-Accepting [the repentance k], Most Merciful l.

 

[66] 65. But never [is there any belief in their hearts, other than only their mere saying: "We believe]",

By your Lord [O Mohammed]! They will not [truly] believe until they refer all that is in discord between them, to your judgment m,

and then will find within themselves no [embarrassment and] dislike of your decision, and submit [to your decision] with full submission. n

 

[67] 66. Had We prescribed for them [: these hypocrites, saying to them:] "Kill yourselves or leave your habitations"[as had We prescribed before for the Children of Israel o], then very few of them [who will repent from their hypocrisy in the future p] would have done it.

But if they had done what they were admonished with [: to obey the messenger and ask God's forgiveness q], it would have been better for them [than keeping up to their hypocrisy], and more confirming [of the belief in their hearts.]

 

[68] 67. And then [if they had done that], We should have given them from Us a great reward [in the Next Life.]

 

[69] 68. And We should have shown them [on the Day of Judgment] the straight way [that will lead them to Paradise.]

 

 

[70] 69. Whoso obeys Godr and the messengers, they t [will] be with those to whom God has shown favor u: prophets, true believersv, martyrs w and the righteous x. The best of company are they! y

 

[71] 70. Such [admission into Paradise, in company with the prophets] is the favor of God [on them];

and Sufficient is God as All-Knowing [about the obedient and the disobedient.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60 a Or the "arrogant": The 'Devi' is also called the 'arrogant' or 'tyrant', because he was proud over Adam and refused to prostrate himself before him.

 

 

60 b As is it indicated in His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 2: 256, which means:

(And anyone [of you] rejects [Abu-Jahl] the 'tyrant', and believes in God [Alone, ascribing no associates to Him,] has indeed grasped a most firm handle [of ship] which is never detachable, [so he will not be drowned and will be safe of Hell, if he follows the religion of the Islam.])

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62 c When they said to their comrade: "Go for judgment to Ka'ab son of Ashraf."

 

 

 

 

 

62 d towards the opponent.

 

 

62 e to reconcile between the two opponents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63 f With your words.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64 g Concerning his bidding and forbidding them.

 

 

 

64 h i.e. God has permitted you to obey him, listen to his words, and never disobey his commands.

 

64 i i.e. the hypocrites.

 

 

 

64 j with their hypocrisy and seeking after judgment of the tyrant Ka'ab son of Ashraf.

 

 

64 k of those who repent.

 

64 l To those who regret about their sins.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65 m i.e. until they make you the arbiter or judge concerning the discord and the dispute which occurs between them, and then you will know that they have believed in you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65 n So they will not object to you; and then you will know that they have believed with a true and sure belief; but today they are not believers in fact.

 

 

 

66 o So that the Children of Israel killed themselves after their worshipping the calf, and they went out of Egypt [in their exodus] together with Moses. So had We ordered these hypocrites by that …

66 p And reform their acts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

66 q This is like His saying – be glorified – in this soora 64, which means:

(And if they, after having wronged themselves, had come to you [Mohammed] and had asked God forgiveness, and the messenger [too] had asked forgiveness for them..etc.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

69 r About His commands.

 

69 s About his instructions and teachings.

 

69 t i.e. the obedient: We shall admit them with ..

 

69 u By admitting them into Paradise.

 

69 v i.e. those who believed the apostles of God and believed in their missions.

 

69 w Who were slain in the way of God.

 

69 x Whose acts and intentions are good.

 

69 y Anyone that has such companions: how excellent will be such companions!

 

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[72] 71. Believers, take [with you] your protective means a; then issue forth [to fight your enemy] in groups b, or issue forth all together c.

 

[73] 72. There are among you [, Muslims], some who delay [being laggard to go for fighting d, when you invite them to fight the enemy]; then if a misfortune [like slaying or wounding] visits you, he will say: "God has been Gracious to me e [and I escaped that misfortune; because of] that I did not attend [the fighting] together with them."

 

[74] 73. But if good fortune comes to you from God f, he would be sure to say – as if there had never been ties of affection g between you and him h – "Would that I had been with them, to attain a great success [: in having much of the booty.]"

 

[75] 74. So let them, fight in the way of God, those who exchange the Next [Life] for the life of the World;

and whosoever fights in the way of God, then be he killed or be he victorious [on the enemy], We will grant him a great reward [in the Next Life.]

 

[76] 75. What excuse for you [Muslims] that you do not fight in the way of God and [in Mecca] the weak and oppressed men, women and children i who say, "Our Lord! Take us out of this town of which the people are oppressors, and appoint to us from You a guardian j and appoint to us from You a helper k."

 

 

[77] 76. The believers fight for the cause of God, [but the hypocrites fight for the booty], whereas the disbelievers [out of Quraish tribesmen] fight for the cause of the tyrant [: Abu-Jahl.]

Fight therefore [O believers] against the 'followers and allies' of [Abu-Jahl:] the devil; surely the stratagem of the devil [against the believers] is ever weak l.

 

 

71 a Like the armor, the helmet and the shield.

 

71 b a brigade after another.

 

71 c If the situation demands that.

 

 

 

 

 

72 d For some trivial reasons.

 

 

 

 

 

 

72 e i.e. I was not attending with them in the fighting so as to be afflicted with the same misfortune that afflicted them.

 

 

 

 

73 f Like the victory on the enemy and the booty out of their property.

 

 

 

73 g And connection.

 

73 h And as if you had not invited him to go forth with you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75 i are waiting for you, and earnestly asking you to save them from the idolaters and their persecution.

75 j To take care about our affairs and save us from the idolaters and their persecution.

75 k To help us against them.

 

 

 

 

76 l Because God will fail him, expose his secrets to the believers and help them against him and his followers.

 

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[A group of the Muslims suffered much of the persecution of the idolaters when they were in Mecca, and before they migrated to Medina; so they complained their condition to the messenger of God, and said: "Give us permission to fight them."

He said: "Don't fight them, but establish the prayers; for I have not been permitted to fight them."

But then, when they migrated to Medina, and the Prophet commanded them to fight the idolaters, it was so difficult for some of them, and they were troubled.

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]  

[78] 77. Haven't you [Mohammed] considered those to whom it had been said [at Mecca]: "Withhold your hands [from fighting] and establish the prayer and give the Zakat-alms";

but when fighting was prescribed for them [at Medina, following the migration], [actually] a party of them feared people a like [their] fearing God's [punishment] or might be with a stronger fear b.

They said c: "Our Lord, why have You prescribed fighting for us [this year]? If only You would give us respite yet a while [to the next yeard]!" 

Say, [Mohammed, to them], "The enjoyment of [this] World is little e and the Next Life is better [than this life of the World] for him who wards off [the disobedience of Godf], and you [people] will not be wronged g even it be a 'fatiel' [: a minute plant seed.]" h

 

[Then God – be glorified – started to address those hypocrites:]

[79] 78. Wherever you [people] are, death will find you outi , even if you are in towers j built up strong and high!

[Then God – be glorified – addressed the prophet:]

If some good k befalls them, they say: "This is from God";

but evil l befalls them, they say: "This is due to your omen [O Mohammed]"

Say [Mohammed, to these hypocrites]: "Both [of the good and the evil things] are from God. m " What ails these men n then that they come not to understand any words!? o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77 a i.e. the idolaters.

 

 

77 b i.e. some of them feared people more than they feared God.

 

77 c Because of their extreme fear.

 

77 d i.e. so that we may have rest this year and accomplish our affairs.

 

77 e In relation to the Next Life. So this life of the World is a home of working and toiling, and it is not the home of rest and prosperity; moreover, your life span is short, and it is not enough for you to have rest; therefore, strive in your Worldly life and have rest in your Next Life.

 

77 f And he obeys God.

 

77 g Concerning the reward of your acts. But in fact God will double the reward of your acts, and will not decrease anything of that.

77 hIt is a twisted plant seed, which has also been mentioned in the aya 49 in this soora.

78 i It means: wherever you are of places and sites, death afflicts you when your death appointment comes.

78 j Towers are in the corners of castles or forts, one tower at each corner; the tower is usually circular in shape, in which the guards and watchers settle at the time of war. 

78 k Like some victory or booty.

78 l Like a calamity and a defeat. 

78 m So that if it is success, then a triumph and victory. And if it is defeat, then it will be a trial and checking.

78 n i.e. these hypocrites.

78 o It means: they don't come near to the admonition, the sermon and the Quran recital in order that they may receive admonition; and in case they come near to it, they don't  listen to it, and if they listen, they don't work according to it.

 

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[The Prophet had a long coat, then a man came to him, begging for a dress, so the Prophet took off his coat and gave it to that man; therefore, he had cold. Another day, he had three loaves of bread, and a beggar came, and he gave him all the bread and he stayed with his family without food so he suffered hunger; therefore, this aya was revealed:] 

[80] 79. Whatever bounty visits you [Mohammed] it is from God a; whatever affliction b visits you is from yourself c.

And We have sent you a messenger to men d; God suffices for a Witness [to your work and good conduct.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79 a He bestowed it on you.

 

79 b Like the cold and the hunger.

 

79 c Because you gave your only coat, so that you had cold; then you gave all your bread to the beggar, so that you suffered the hunger.

 

79 d So as they may take you as a model; therefore, don't give all that you have, so that you may have disease.

 

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[The Prophet – salam to him – said to his companions: "A few days later, we shall go to fight the idolaters; so prepare yourselves against them."
They said: "Compliance."

So the believers started to prepare themselves, while the hypocrites gathered by night to discuss the matter, and said to each other: "Say to the Prophet: Give us respite for one month so that we may carry out some of our affairs, then we shall go altogether; for he will then leave us and go together with the others."

And when the Prophet heard their words, he was sad; therefore, this aya was revealed to confirm him:]

[81] 80. Whoso obeys the messenger [and prepares himself to fight], is obeying God in fact [because the messenger works according to the command of God.]

But whoso turns away [from him and does not fight, God shall punish him a;] and We have not sent you [Mohammed] to protect them [from the punishment b.]

 

[82] 81. They c say d: "Compliance [to you, Mohammed!]" But when they depart from you, a party of them e decide by night something else than that [compliance] which they say [to youf]; but [the angels of] God write down that which they decide by night g. Then turn away [Mohammed] from them [and do not wait for them h] and put your trust in God i; God suffices as a Trustee j.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80 a Therefore, don't pay attention to his lagging behind.

 

 

80 b So that you become sad for them, and you want to protect them from the punishment.

 

 

 

 

81 c i.e. the hypocrites.

 

 

81 d When God's apostle ordered them to prepare themselves for fighting.

 

 

81 e i.e. the hypocrites. They made counsel and plotted by night.

 

 

81 f They said by night the disobedience, but not what they had said to the Prophet: "Compliance!"

 

 

81 g i.e. His angels write down all that according to God's command, and He will punish them for their deeds.

 

 

81 h But go forth.

 

 

81 i So God will help you against your enemies.

 

 

81 j For anyone that puts trust in God; i.e. God will suffice and vouch for the one who puts trust in God.

 

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[83] 82. Will they not ponder the Quran? a

If it b had been from [anyone] other than God they would have found therein much variation [from the ancient heavenly scriptures, contradicting the monotheism.] c

 

82 a i.e. Won't they contemplate about the Quran revelations, and their fluency and eloquence, so as to know that they cannot bring about any book like it, so they will know that it is not the word of any human, but the Quran is the word of God.

82 b i.e. the Quran.

82 c they would have found in it much variation from the ancient heavenly scriptures, concerning the commandment of ‘the exclusive devotion to God alone’ and discarding the idols ..etc.

 

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[84] 83. When some news comes to them a, whether [coming] from the peace [side:  the Medina side: the side of the prophet] or [coming from] the war [side: from the leader of the army] b, they broadcast it;

but had they referred it c to the Apostle and to those [army leaders] in authority among them, those among their [chiefs and army leaders] – who are able to investigate the matter – would have discerned it d.

If it had not been for the grace of God and His mercy to you [Muslims e], you would have [almost] followed the devil [: Abu-Jahl], all save a few [among you; they have not followed him.]

 

83 a i.e. the hypocrites.

83 b The news coming from the prophet – salam to him – which came from Medina, was usually a news of security and peace; while the news coming from the leader of the army: came from the war and fighting side and it usually included fear.
That is when the leader of the army sent someone to the city of Medina demanding some aid, support, weapon, food..etc; then when that messenger went to Medina, he started to spread the news before telling the Prophet.

83 c i.e. the news. 

83 d i.e. their chiefs and army leaders would have understood and realized the answer and would have done the correct thing, but the hypocrites unveil and broadcast their secrets.

83 e For that He guided you to the Islam religion. And He helped you against your enemy and cast terror in their hearts.

 

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[When Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca, after the Battle of Uhud, he promised an appointment [for fighting] with the messenger of God, the time of Bad'r Minor: which was a market place established in the lunar month of Zul-Quida.

And when the Prophet heard about that appointment, he said to people: "Go forth to the appointment."

But they were sluggish and they disliked going for fighting; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[85] 84. Then [O Mohammed] fight in the way of God a – but don't oblige anyone, other than yourself, [to fight the idolaters] – and urge on the believers [to help you in the fighting.]

It may be that God will restrain [from you] the might of the disbelievers; for God is the Strongest [than they are] in might and the Most Terrible at punishing [them.] b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84 a i.e. go forth to fight, against the idolaters, in the way of God.

 

84 b So the Prophet went forth together with seventy cavalries aiming to Bad'r; and God cast terror in the hearts of the idolaters and their leader Abu Sufyan, so they stayed home and did not go to fight the prophet; and the prophet returned to Medina several days later, together with his companions, safe and gaining in the trade at that market place, as had God – be glorified – promised them.

 

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[86] 85. Whoso intercedes with a good intercessiona will have a portion of b its [reward], and whoso intercedes with a bad intercession c will have a share of its [evil] d;

for God, surely, punishes according to everything e in due time. f

 

85 a Which agrees with the religion: by preserving the right of a Muslim: to avert the harm from him, or to benefit him.

85 b i.e. because of it.

85 c Which is contrary to the religion, by which to free a criminal; so that he intercedes for him and save him from the prescribed retaliation.

85 d i.e. he will have a share of his guilt and crime.

85 e i.e. of the evil work and intercession.

85 f i.e. sooner or later, He will take to account and punish according to the evil work and intercession.

 

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[87] 86. And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet with [one] fairer than it a, or [at least] return it b; surely God does recompense for every deed.

 

86 a It means: if the Muslim greets you and says: "Salam to you!" Then say: "To you too salam and God's mercy!"

86 b If not fairer than it, so that you may say: "Salam to you!"

For the 'greeting with the salam' is a fair act, and it is a duty to answer the 'greeting with the salam'.

 

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[88] 87. God! There is no god [in the universe] but He.

He gathers you all [in the Barzakh world after death a] to the Day of Judgment b about which there is no doubt c; and who is more truthful, of words, than God? d

 

87 a When you are ethereal souls.

87 b Then He will sentence and separate between you: some of you to Paradise and some to Fire.

87 c About the gathering and the Doomsday; it in fact is called Doomsday because people will stand for Judgment; as is it indicated in the Quran 83: 6, which means:

(The day when [all] people will stand [in the 'gathering-together', waiting] for [the judgment of] the Lord of the worlds.)

 

87 d Therefore, this will inevitably occur.

 

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[Some of the idolaters came to Medina for trading and for some Worldly affairs, and when they arrived at Medina they pretended of becoming Muslims. Then when they accomplished their business they intended to return back to Mecca, and when the Muslims asked them about the reason for their going back, they said: "We want to go back to our families in order to carry our luggage and furniture and return back to you."

Then when they did not come back for a considerable period of time, the Muslims differed about them: some said: "They apostatized from the Islam, and will never come back", while others said: "They have become Muslims, but some circumstances hindered them, and they will certainly come back later on."

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]  

[89] 88. How is it with you [Muslims] that you have become two parties [with two opinions] concerning the hypocrites a, while in fact God has immersed them [in their sins b] because of [their transgression on people and the sins] that they earned?

Do you [Muslims] desire [then] to guide [to the Islam and invite to it] those whom God has misguided [because of their wrong-doing]?

Whom God misguides [from the way of truth], you [men] will not find for him any way [to be saved and be guided aright.]

 

[90] 89. They c wish that you [Muslims] may disbelieve even as have they disbelieved, so that you may then be equal to them [in disbelief.] 

Therefore, take for yourselves no 'friends and allies' out of them till they emigrate d [to Medina] for the cause of God;

but if they turn away [from you and from believing in your Prophet] then seize them e and slay them wherever you may find them, and take for yourselves no friend f nor any helper out of them g.

 

[Then God made an exception: those who have a covenant and compact with Muslims, or those covenanting with those having a peace treaty with Muslims:]

[91] 90. Except those who relate to a people joined with you by a treaty h,

or [those who] come to you with hearts restraining i them from fighting you or fighting their own people j.

If God had pleased, He could have given them power over you k, and they would have fought you l.

Therefore, if they withdraw from you m, and do not fight you n, and they submit to your peace [treaty] o, then God allows no way for you against them p.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

88 a One party are certain that those men are disbelievers, and the other party are certain that they have become Muslims.

 

Had they truly become Muslims, then they would have come back to you; but they in fact are disbelievers, so don't decide that they are Muslims.

 

 

88 b i.e. God has drowned them in their sins and transgression.

 

89 c i.e. these hypocrites about whom you varied.

 

89 d i.e. till they emigrate from their homes and come back to you, and on condition that their emigration will be for the cause of God, not for any other purpose.

 

89 e With beating and captivity.

 

89 f With whom you ally.

 

89 g Whom you ask for help against your enemies.

 

90 h Of peace and cease fighting: therefore, don't do any hurt to them and don't kill them as long as they keep their compact.
Among those who made treaty with the Prophet, was Hilal son of Uwaimir Al-Salmi; he covenanted on behalf of his people and said: "Mohammed, you shall not oppress those who come to our side, and we shall not oppress those who go to your side."

 

 

90 i i.e. those keeping their secrets within their hearts, and don't reveal their intentions.

90 j i.e. they refrain from fighting you and from fighting their people, like the clan of Bani Mudlij; their chief Suraqa son of Muslik came and covenanted with the Prophet that he should  not fight him, and he told the Prophet that he covenanted Quraish too that he should not fight them either.

90 k By removing the fear from their hearts.

90 l But He cast terror in their hearts, so they came to covenant and make peace treaty with you; therefore, you should be grateful to God for His favor on you concerning this matter.

 

 

 

90 m As did they covenant with you.

 

90 n neither do they do any harm to you.

 

90 o and do not break the treaty.

 

90 p To take their property nor to kill them; therefore, don't do anything of that to them as long as they keep their covenant.

 

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[92] 91. You [Muslims] will find others who desire to be secure from you and from their own people. a

Whenever they are turned [by their people] to temptation they are drowned [more and more] therein b.

So if they do not refrain from [fighting you], nor submit to you[r commands and make peace with you], nor withhold their hands [form hurting you], then take them [captives] and kill them wherever you can find them.

Against such people, We have given you an obvious warrant [by making you victorious over them.]

 

91 a i.e. they want to be safe from you and from their people: so when they come to you, they say: "We are with you against our people"; and when they go to their people, they say: "We are with you against the Muslims."

Then God – be glorified – told about them that whenever they return to their people, they increase in their disbelief and hypocrisy, and they in fact are not any Muslims as do they claim:

 

91 b It means: Whenever they return to their people, the latter deceive and tempt them to be away from your religion, and turn them back to the disbelief, and drown them in their misguidance and their lies against the Muslims.

 

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[93] 92. It is not for any believer to kill any believer a unless [it be] by mistake b.

Anyone who has killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave, and pay the blood-wit to the family of the slain c, unless they remit it as a charity d.

If the [slain] is of a people e hostile to you, and he [himself apart from his family and tribe] is a believer, then [the penance is] to set free a believing slave f. 

And if the [slain] belongs to a folk between whom and you there is a covenant g, then the blood-wit must be paid to his folk and [also] a believing slave must be set free.

And whoso has not the wherewithal h must fast two consecutive months i; by the way of repentance [of the killer to God and forgiveness] from God j; God is All-Knowing k, All-Wisel .

 

[94] 93. And whoso slays a believer deliberately, his recompense [on the Day of Judgment] will be Hell, to abide therein forever, and God is wroth with him and curses him, and has prepared for him a mighty chastisement [in the Next Life.]

 

92 a It means: Anyone, who deliberately kills a believing Muslim, then the killer is not any believer, but he is a disbeliever.

Then God made an exception: the killing by mistake:

92 b i.e. unless the killing happens by mistake, so the killer will not be rewarded by Hell fire, but he has to release a slave who is a believer in a way of penance or atonement.

92 c And he has to pay the 'blood-wit' which he should give to the family and heirs of the slain.

92 d i.e. unless the heirs and family of the slain remit the blood-wit; that is when the family of the slain is rich and the family of the killer is poor, then it is better that they remit the blood-wit as a charity.

Then, God – be glorified – explained the statement of the slain in case he belongs to some disbelieving people, but he himself is a believer:

 

92 e That are disbelievers.

92 f And he should not give the blood-wit, because the family members of the slain are disbelievers, and the disbeliever does not receive the inheritance of the Muslim.

92 g For giving the blood-wit.

92 h i.e. the required money for releasing a captive or for freeing a slave who is a believer.

92 i i.e. he has to fast for two successive months, not separating between them eventhough by the breakfast of one day.

92 j For his guilt, if he gives the blood-wit.

92 k About your acts.

92 l Concerning what He bids you with, and what He forbids you from.

 

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[This aya was revealed about Osama son of Zayd and his companions: the Prophet sent them in a campaign, and they met a man who was taking his sheep to a mountain; this man had converted and became a Muslim, while they did not know about his conversion; and he said to them: "Salam to you; no god but God, Mohammed is the messenger of God."

But they thought that he said it lest he should be killed, and was not a Muslim in reality; so Osama rushed and killed him and they drove away his sheep; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[95] 94. Believers, when you journey in the cause of God [for fighting and other purposes], investigate carefully [to distinguish the believer from the disbeliever], and say not to anyone who submits to you a: "You are not a believer"b; seeking [by killing him] the perishable property of the Worldly life c; surely, with God are abundant profits and spoils d. Even thus were you yourselves [hiding your belief] before e, till God conferred on you His favor [of the victory and triumph f], therefore carefully investigate [in the future!] g For God is Well-Aware of all that you do. h

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

94 a and complies to your command.

 

94 b so don't disbelieve him, neither kill him.

 

94 c i.e. seeking after the booty and the temporary wealth which comes to you without toiling.

 

94 d Which you will obtain in the future if you obey.

 

94 e And you feared lest people might ravage you.

 

94 f So that your fear disappeared, and you started to declare publicly your conversion to the Islam.

 

94 g And don’t hasten and rush for killing.

 

94 h So nothing of your acts may be hidden from Him.

 

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[96] 95. Such believers as abstain [from struggling for the cause of God] – unless they have a crippling defect a – are not the equals b of those who struggle, for the cause of God, with their property and their lives c.

God prefers, with [a higher] rank d, those who struggle with their property and their lives over the ones who sit at home; 

yet to each [of the two groups] God promises the reward most fair [in the Next Life]; and God prefers those who struggle over the ones who sit at home, with an  abounding reward [in the Next Life.]

 

[97] 96. [Such as many] degrees of excellence bestowed [on them] by Him [in the paradises], as well as forgiveness [of their sins] and mercy [to them in the Barzakh or spirit world.]

Surely, God is Most-Forgiving e, Most Mercifuld.

 

 

 

 

95 a This is an exception: those who have excuse like the blind, the lame and the sick.

 

95 b In recompense and position before God.

 

95 c These latter have a greater rank before God.

 

95 d In the life of the World.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96 e For those who struggle in God's way.

 

96 d To those who exclusively believe in Him alone.

 

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[Some of the idolaters pretended to be Muslims in Mecca, but they returned back to their idolatry and association with God, and did not emigrate to Medina;

while some, of those who had converted and become Muslims, kept up to their Islam, but they did not emigrate to Medina because they were not capable of travelling, because some of them were elderly, some were sick, or women or little children.
Therefore, this aya was revealed concerning them:]

[98] 97. And those [associaters] that the angels [of death] receive [their souls through death] a,

while still wronging themselves [by their infidelity and refusing to emigrate, and therefore they will cast their souls in Hell] –

the [angels will] say b [to them]: "By what circumstances were you [distracted from your religion?]"

They [will] say: "We were abased in the earthc."

The [angels will] say: "But was not God's earth wide enough for you to emigrate throughout it?"d

Such [disbelievers will] have their abode in Hell e – What an evil resort! f

 

[Then God made an exception: the truly abased:]

[99] 98. Except the men g, women h and children who, being abased, can devise no plan [to emigrate] and are not guided [to go out] to the way [to reach Medina.]

 

[100] 99. As for such [weak people], it may be that God will pardon them i; God is Ever Pardoning j, Most Forgiving k.

 

[101] 100. Whoso emigrates, l for the cause of God, will find m many insurgents n and [much] abundance in the earth. o

And whoso forsakes his home, as an emigrant to [the religion of] God and His messenger, and then death overtakes him p, his reward is then incumbent on God;

God is Ever Forgiving q, Most Merciful r.

 

 

 

 

 

 

97 a It means: Those idolaters and associaters that are slain or die: the angels of death will seize their souls.

 

97 b i.e. the angels will say to them, following their separation from their bodies by death.

 

97 c i.e. the idolaters abased us in our land with their large number and might, and prevented us from believing in God alone and from following His messenger; this is in a way of apologizing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97 d i.e. so that you might go out of your land to another land, the people of which might guard you from the idolaters and associaters.

 

97 e To which they resort and reside in.

 

97 f i.e. their condition are bad in Hell, as is bad their destiny therein.

 

98 g who are unable to emigrate.

 

98 h who are unable emigrate.

 

99 i Their negligence.