Soora 5



[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)



The meaning


More explanation


[A Muslim hunted a wild ass during the inviolable months, in the precincts of Mecca, and another saw him and said to him: "It is unlawful for you to eat of it, because you hunted it during the inviolable months"; therefore, this aya was revealed:]


[2] 1. Believers, fulfill [your] compacts a. The ambiguous cattle b [not mentioned in the Quran] is made lawful to you [for food]


[Then He made an exception: the unlawful:]


except that which is mentioned to you [in the Quran] c, allowing not yourselves the chase [even of these ambiguous cattle] when you are 'in the inviolable' [months or in the state of pilgrimage] d; surely, God decrees whatever He pleases e.


1 a i.e. fulfill your compacts or the covenants with which you covenanted God and His messenger: to obey His commands and avoid His disobedience; so why do you hunt in the inviolable months?

1 b Which is ambiguous to you: you don't know is it lawful or unlawful, like the gazelle, the wild goat, the wild ass, the wild cow and others which eat the plant and cereals.


The ambiguous cattle are those not mentioned in the Quran.

While those mentioned in the Quran, are not ambiguous; like the sheep, the goat, the cow and the camel. As is it mentioned in the Quran 39: 6, which means:

(And He sent down for you eight [heads] of the cattle in [four] couples.)

1 c About making some unlawful like the swine, the dead [animal] and the blood.

1 d i.e. it is not allowed for you to hunt them during the state of Ihram during the pilgrimage [to Mecca], and also in the inviolable months.

1 e So none can contradict His commands and judgment.





[When the prophet – salam to him – conquered Mecca, he ordered his crier to cry out:

"From now on, no idolater is allowed to make pilgrimage, neither is any naked one allowed to go round about the House of God at Mecca."

Afterwards, some people from the precincts of Mecca came to make pilgrimage and to convert, but they followed their old traditions, and the Muslims did not know about their intention, so some of the Muslims transgressed on them and took in possession their presents and garlanded [sacrifices] which they dedicated to the House of God; therefore, God censured them for that in this aya:]

[3] 2. Believers, do not profane the 'places of worshipping' God a, nor the inviolable month b, nor offerings c, nor [should you profane] garlanded [sacrifices] d, nor [should you profane the people] heading for the Inviolable House [of God at Mecca] e, craving the reward and good pleasure of their Lord f.

But when you are off the inviolable [month and off the state of pilgrimage] you may then hunt. g

And let not the hatred for some people, in [once they] barred you from the Inviolable Mosque h, move you to transgress, i

so help one another to [do] piety j and God-fearing k, but help not one another to sin l and transgression [on pilgrims.]

And ward off [the punishment of] God m; surely, God is Terrible in chastising.n


2 a i.e. the signs of His religion.

It means: Don't occupy the places of worship by some Worldly affairs, but you should leave them to those praying and worshipping.

2 b i.e. don't hunt in the inviolable month, which is Zul-Hijja lunar month.

And it is not allowed for Muslims to hunt during the inviolable months, in any country; the hunt or chase that is not allowed is the hunt of the wilderness, not the hunt of the sea; this is according to the word of God in the Quran 5: 96, which means:
(Permitted to you is the game of the sea [: your fishing], and its food [fished by others, and the tinned fish and the dried salted fish], as a provision for you [who reside] and for travellers; but forbidden to you is the game of the land, so long as you remain in the sanctity of pilgrimage [or the Omra or in the four inviolable months.])


God in fact forbids its hunting in the inviolable months in order that they will not be instinct.

2 c i.e. don't take the "offerings" by force without the agreement of their owners; the "offerings" are the camel, cow or sheep which the pilgrim offers to the Lord of the House, to be sacrificed on the feast day.

2 d i.e. don't profane the garlanded sacrifices without their owners agreement about that; they are some cattle that they put on their necks some necklaces to show they are dedicated for the House of God.

2 e i.e. you are not allowed to take the property of some people who come aiming to visit the Inviolable House of Mecca for pilgrimage, who seek after the good pleasure of God.

2 f their purpose is to do the pilgrimage and to convert and submit themselves to God.

2 g You are allowed then to hunt the ambiguous cattle.

2 h It means: Don't let the hatred move you to commit crime against these people because in the year of the Hudaybiyah, they prevented you from the ‘Umrah’ (which is the visiting of the House of God at Mecca in days other the days of the pilgrimage.)

2 i It means: We have explained and warned you in order that you should not transgress on them in the future, by taking their "offerings" and their "garlanded sacrifices"; because they have come to convert, so love each other.

2 j Among yourselves.

2 k By forsaking the enmity.

2 l Which is the disobedience.

2 m But don't contradict His commands.

2 n Therefore, you should fear His punishment, and you should never transgress on the pilgrims to His House of Mecca.





[4] 3. Forbidden to you [for food] are the carriona, the blood b, the flesh of swine, and that dedicated to anyone other than God c, and the strangled [animal d], the dead through beating e, the dead through falling from a height f, and that killed by the goring [of horns] g, and that [partly] eaten by a beast of prey h, unless you are able to slaughter [it before its death] i, and that slaughtered on the altars j [being sacrificed to idols.]

And [forbidden is it] that you divide [the sacrifice] by the [idolatry] arrows (or lots) k: that l will be ungodliness m.

The unbelievers have, today, become in despair of [turning you away from] your religionn; so fear them not, but fear Me o!

Today I have perfected your religion for you p and completed My favor to you q, and chosen for you, as religion, the Islam.

Whoso is forced r by starvation s, not inclining to sin; then, surely, God is Most Forgiving t, Most Merciful u.


3 a Whether of the cattle, the "ambiguous hunted animals" or others.

3 b Because in the pre-Islam period they used to eat the blood; they used to phlebotomize the camel and eat its blood.

3 c i.e. the vow, and the sacrifice sacrificed to those other than God, is forbidden because it is some kind of associating others with God; it is that which the idolaters used to sacrifice for the idols; the sacrificing to those other than God done by the idolaters, especially at the beginning of the lunar months when the new moon appears: this has been explained in the Quran, soora 2.

While nowadays, they sacrifice the cattle to sheikhs, imams and prophets, but this is not allowed: neither to sacrifice it, nor to eat of it, nor to distribute its meat to people: it is forbidden just like the pork or the swine meat. Therefore, the vowing to anyone other than God is not allowed.

3 d Which is tied with a rope then falls from its place to become hanged with its rope till it dies. There is a sect of people in India: they do not slaughter the sheep but they strangle it then eat it, but this is forbidden.

3 e Which is beaten by a stick or by a stone to die from the beating; it is forbidden too.

3 f Which falls from the mountain to the valley and it dies, or it falls from the roof of the house, or it falls into a well or a pit; or a car or a train hits it and it dies, then it is forbidden for eating.

3 g Which is butted by one of the cattle to die from that, then its eating is forbidden.

3 h It means: the prey which is devoured by some wild beasts: eating some and leaving the rest of it; it also is forbidden.

3 i i.e. but you are allowed to eat the meat of the animals just mentioned, if you slaughter the animal before its death.

While the bird hunting: you can rehearse God's name on it when you shoot the bullet, that is to say: (In the name of God; God is Most Great!)

So if the bullet hits the bird and it dies, then slaughter it immediately, and this is in order to make it lawful, and then its eating is allowed, because the bullet will be instead of the slaughtering, but on condition that you should rehearse God's name on it.

3 j These are large stones on which the idolaters used to slaughter the cattle as a sacrifice to the idols.

3 k These were some arrows on which they put numbers: for this arrow one share, two for that arrow and three for the third one, and so on: to each arrow some special shares particular for it.

It was a game like the gambling or lottery: they used to slaughter a cow or a sheep and they gamble with those arrows, so that the loss would be for one of them and the man would pay its cost and they would then distribute its meat among them.

3 l Gambling and dividing by the arrows.

3 m i.e. that is some of the acts of the ungodly who want to plunder the wealth of their companions by means of the gambling, and it is in contradiction of God's obedience.

3 n i.e. they lost any hope to destroy your religion and to turn you back to their religion. Because they fought and resisted the Muslims in order to turn them back to their religion, but they lost all hope of that when they saw the large number of Muslims and their power and victory at every time.

3 o And don't contradict My command.

3 p Including: making lawful, unlawful, statements and laws.

3 q When I guided you to the Islam, revealed the Quran to you and helped you against the idolaters.

3 r i.e. he is obliged to eat the meat of such forbidden animals.

3 s It means: Whoso is forced by severe starvation to eat the dead animal and that which God forbade [in this aya], and he does not intend to disobey the command of God, then he is not to be blamed.

3 t To the sinners who repent, and is more forgiving in fact to the hungry.

3 u To the needy. 





[Zayd Al-khail and Adiy son of Hatim Al-Ta'ee came to ask God's messenger about the statement of the chase and what to eat of it, and is it allowed to eat it if it dies before slaughtering it; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[5] 4. They ask you [Mohammed] what [gamea] is made lawful to them.

Say: "The 'wholesome and pure' [animal-meat] is made lawful to you b, and [the hunt of] predatory birds c which you train, pursuing them with hounds d, that you train e as God has taught you f.

So eat of that which they seize according to your [thrown arrow] g and pronounce God's name upon the [game h before slaughtering it];

and ward off [God's punishment] i; [for] surely, God is Swift at punishment.


4 a i.e. out of the ambiguous hunted animal.

4 b i.e. that which is good and wholesome to eat, like the gazelle, the wild cow, the wild ass, the wild goat and others: if you hit them with your arrows or spears, and you should pronounce God's name on it, so it will be lawful to you, even though it dies before slaughtering it. So the issuing of blood out of it will be instead of the slaughtering on condition that God's name should be pronounced on it.

4 c i.e. the birds used in hunting like the falcon and others.

4 d When the hunter sees the gazelle, he will release the falcon to fly and pursue the gazelle, then to stand on its two horns and open its two wings on the eyes of the gazelle, so that it cannot see its way to escape; then the dog will come to catch the thigh of the gazelle with its teeth, until the hunter approaches them and captures the gazelle.

4 e i.e. you train the birds of prey and the hounds to hunting.

4 f By inspiring you, and by means of the minds which He inserts in you.

4 g That is because the hunter throws an arrow towards the gazelle, then he releases the falcon and the hound will follow the falcon.

4 h When you throw the arrow or shoot the bullet towards it, so you should then say: (In the name of God; God is Most Great!)

4 i So you should not eat that which is forbidden to you, and you should not contradict His commands.





[Then God made lawful to Muslims, some of the meat and food that had been forbidden to Jews:]

[6] 5. Now, 'wholesome and pure' [kinds of meat] are made lawful to you [that were unlawful to Jews.]

The food of those a who were given the Scripture is lawful to you, as is your food lawful to themb.

Likewise [those] women who believe, that are chaste in wedlock, and in wedlock [those] chaste women of those c given the Scripture before you, if you give to the [women] their dowries; you being chaste in wedlock, not adulterous, nor having secret girlfriends;

surely, whoso rejects faith d then his [righteous] work will be fruitless, and, in the Next Life, he will lose [the reward of his deeds.]


5 a He means the Jews and their scripture or book: the Torah; because they pronounce the name of God on their slaughtered animal, while it is not allowed to eat the slaughtered animal of Christians, except the foods that include no meat.

5 b That is the foods just mentioned, so don't prevent them from it if they want to buy it, in case there is peace between you and them.

5 c Like Jews, Christians and Sabaeans; you are allowed to marry them on condition that she is a monotheist (devoting herself exclusively to God alone), and that she is not any associater or idolater, then she should convert to the Islam religion.

5 d i.e. whoso apostatizes from the Islam law (Sharia) by denying some of it.


Now, this is what is mentioned in the Torah collection : the Bible, the Old Testament, Book of Levites (: Priests), chapter 11:

" The Lord spoke again to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them,

2 “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘These are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth.

3 - ‘Whatever divides a hoof, thus making split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat.

4 - ‘Nevertheless, you are not to eat of these, among those which chew the cud, or among those which divide the hoof: the camel, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you.

5 - ‘Likewise, the shaphan, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you;

6 - the rabbit also, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you;

7 - and the pig, for though it divides the hoof, thus making a split hoof, it does not chew cud, it is unclean to you.

8 - ‘You shall not eat of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you."


So these are four animals which God forbade to Jews, while He made lawful three of them to Muslims, viz. the camel, the shaphan (or the coney) and the rabbit.


In summary: [To Muslims], every animal among these, that eats the grass and the grain (or the seed) but does not eat the meat and the bone, is lawful except the pig.


Similarly every bird, that eats the meat of the dead animal and the carrion, is unlawful; while every bird that eats the seed and the plant, then its meat is lawful.





[7] 6. Believers, when you rise up for the [ritual] prayer a, wash your faces b and your hands to the elbows [included], wipe [the front of] your heads c, and [wash] your feet to the ankles [included] d.

If you are defiled [after ejaculation or after sexual intercourse with or without ejaculation], cleanse yourselves e;

but if you are sick, or on a journey, or anyone of you comes from the place [of relieving nature] f, or you have sexual intercourse with women g and you don't find any water h, then go to a [clean] high place i and wipe your faces and your hands with it j.

God does not desire to lay a burden upon you k; but He desires to cleanse you l and to complete His grace on you m, haply you will be grateful n.


[8] 7. And remember the blessings of God on youo, and His covenant which [His messenger] ratified with you p, when you said [to the prophet]: "Compliance! We have heard and we obey q ".

And ward off [the punishment of] God r; for God is All-Knowing about the secrets of [your hearts which are in] your breasts. s


6 a i.e. at the time you rise for prayer.

6 b With water.

6 c On the front part of the head over the fontanel.

6 d The indication that it means the washing, not the wiping, of the feet is that it is defined to the two ankles, as is the washing of the hands defined to the elbows; while the wiping is not defined. 

But the wiping is permitted if the feet are clean of the filth and dirt, in winter with fearing of the coldness; or if the water is scanty and is not sufficient for washing the two feet.

6 e By bathing with water.

6 f i.e. after he passes bowel motion, or after urination.

The Arabic word ΫΗΖΨ has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 4: 43.

6 g But without ejaculation, you have also to wash.

6 h For ablution or washing.

6 i Of the earth which is pure of the dirt and filth.

6 j i.e. with the dust of that high place of the earth.

6 k With what He orders you to the washing after the ejaculation and sexual intercourse, and the ablution before the prayer.

6 l From the dirt and filth.

6 m With the health.

6 n To God for the bounties that He bestows on you.


7 o For that He guided you to the Islam, and you converted and believed.

7 p on the night of the Aqaba, in the Radhwan pledge of allegiance, and at the pledge of allegiance to the messenger: because those who converted gave him the pledge of allegiance to compliance in the time of difficulty and ease:

7 q Concerning what you bid and forbid us.

7 r Concerning the breaking of the covenant and forgetting about the bounties.

7 s Nothing of your secrets is hidden from Him, neither is anything of your overt things unknown to Him. 





[9] 8. Believers, be leaders for guidance to [the religion of] God a,

witnesses for justice, and let not [your] hatred of some people seduce you to be unjust b. Be just c; the [justice] is nearer to keep off [the hatred and dissension between opponents.]

And ward off [the punishment of] God d; for surely God is Most Aware of all that you doe.


[10] 9. God has promised those who believe [in God and His messenger] and do righteous [deeds: they shall have] forgiveness [of their sins] and a great reward [in the Next Life.]


[11] 10. But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations [of the Quran], they shall be the inhabitants of Hell f.



8 a i.e. be teachers for people about the acting according to God's religion, and obeying God and holding fast with His religious law (: Sharia.)


8 b In judging between the two opponents; i.e. if you judge between two opponents, when one of them hates you as do you hate him, so if you judge for the advantage of his opponent with falsehood, in this case you will bear the sin and crime of the judgment decision.


8 c Between the two opponents, even though one of them is your enemy or the enemy of your friend or kindred.


8 d And don't take the bribe concerning the judgment.


8 e So He will reward you according to your acts.





10 f In which they will be punished on Doomsday.





[12] 11. Believers, remember the bounty of God on you, when a [Jewish] group of peoplea intended to stretch forth their hands [with evil] against you, but He withheld their hands from you b;

so ward off [the punishment of] God c, and in God let believers put all their trust d.


11 a They were the Jews of Beni Nadhier; God's messenger came to them together with some of his companions; the Jews had covenanted with him to desert fighting and to help him about the "due blood-money".

The Prophet – salam to him – said: "One of my companions killed two men, with whom I have a peace treaty, so I am obliged to give their ‘due blood-money’, and I want you to help me about this." 

They said: "Yes, sit down so that we may feed you and give you what you are asking."

But they intended to kill the Prophet and his companions, so Gabriel came down with the revelation and told the Prophet about that, and he went out of them together with his companions."

11 b By telling the Prophet about their wicked intention, so you were saved of their evil; therefore, obey the command of your messenger.

11 c And do not contradict his commands, but struggle according to his program, and put trust in God.

11 d So that they will be saved and will be victorious.





[Then God – be glorified – explained about the condition of Jews in the past, and their abstention from fighting when He commanded them to fight, and He assigned on them twelve chiefs or leaders: one for each one of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel in order to comply to the leader and do not refuse to fight the idolaters:]

[13] 12. God took, of the Sons of Israel, a covenant a, and We assigned out of them twelve chiefs b;

and God said c: "I am [certainly] with you d: if you are steadfast in prayer, and give alms, believe in My messengers e and assist them f, and lend to God a goodly loan g; then will I conceal your [past] sins and admit you [on Doomsday] into Gardens with rivers flowing below their [trees];

so whosoever of you [Jews], after that [covenant], disbelieves, surely he has lost the 'right standard' way [of the truth.] h


[Then God – be glorified – explained that they broke the covenants, betrayed the pacts, worshipped the idols and disobeyed the command of God:]

[14] 13. And because of their repeated breaking of their covenant i, We cursed them j, and made their hearts grow hard k; they used to pervert words from their contextl; and have forgotten a portion of that they were admonished with [in the Torah] m; and you [Mohammed] will every now and then discover, among the Jews], a treacherous [band], except a few of them n. Yet, forgive them [their fault] and pardon [them, this time.]

Surely, God loves those that are kind [to people.]


12 a i.e. He ratified the covenant with them to fight the idolaters (or associaters) when God commands them about that and they should not refuse.


12 b i.e. twelve chiefs according to the number of the tribes of Israel.


12 c To the Children of Israel by the tongue of Moses.


12 d In helping you against your enemies.


12 e The past messengers and the present Moses and Aaron.


12 f With words and work.


12 g By expending in God's way on the poor, the needy, orphans and paupers; so if you do all that ..


12 h But if you like to know the names of these chiefs, you will find them written in the Bible, the Book of Numbers, chapter one and two.




13 i Because Moses, Joshua, Samuel, David and Nehemiah .. all these ratified the covenants with them, but they broke the covenants.


13 j i.e. We drove them away from Our mercy, banished them from the Holy House of God at Jerusalem, and dispersed them throughout the earth.


13 k Because devouring of the unlawful money hardens the heart.


13 l i.e. they robbed the word of its meanings, so they said: "Sam to you", instead of saying "Salam to you." The "sam" in Arabic means: the viper. And as such did they pervert the word concerning those whom they hated.


13 m i.e. and that with which their prophets admonished them, and about which their ancestors reminded them, but they forgot about it because of the passing of a long time.

13 n Did not betray the covenant.





[15] 14. With those [Christians] who said: "We are the helpers of God['s religion]" a – "We ratified the covenant with them [too] b, but they have forgotten a portion of that they were admonished with c; so We have stirred up enmity and hatred among them [and they divided into many sectsd] till Doomsday e, and God will assuredly inform them [on the Day of Judgment] of the [statues of the Christ and his mother and the crosses] they used to make f.


14 a But in fact they became the enemy of God, because they worshipped the Christ and his mother apart from God.

14 b By the tongue of Jesus and the disciples after him; the covenant was to worship God alone and that they should not associate anything with Him.

14 c They worshipped the Christ and his mother and left God their Creator.

14 d And each sect started to antagonize the other sects.

14 e Because of their disbelief and association with God.

14 f And worship and sanctify.





[16] 15. People of the Bible [: Jews and Christians], now has Our messenger [Mohammed] come expounding to you many things in the Book [or the Bible] that you were concealing a, and many things else he disregards b. There has come to you light c from God and a clear 'Book' [: the Quran.]


[17] 16. Whereby d God guides him who seeks His good pleasure e to the paths of safety f, and brings them out of darkness to light g with His leave h, and guides them i to a straight pathj.


15 a i.e. Our messenger Mohammed has come to expound to you many statements of the Torah and the Gospel which your ancestors concealed; he expounds such statements of the Torah and the Gospel to you, in order to confirm their authenticity, lest you should not conceal and deny them as did your ancestors conceal. 

15 b While he disregards the rest of the statements of the Torah which your ancestors were concealing, and so he does not expound them, because they are so many.


15 c That is the revelation with which Gabriel came down on Mohammed; this is indicated by His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 4: 174, which means:

(O mankind, there has [now come to you the Quran as] a proof from your Lord; We have sent down to you [included in the Quran] an elucidating light.)


16 d i.e. by the Quran.

16 e And refrains from his vain desires and caprices.

16 f In the Next Life; i.e. God guides him to the  ways of safety from the punishment and from Fire.

16 g i.e. from the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge.

16 h i.e. God gives leave to His angels to guide them to the Islam.

16 i On Judgment Day.

16 j Leading to Paradise [in heaven.]


Now, I tell you about some of the statements of the Torah and Gospel, concealed by Jews and Christians, who altered their doctrines so as to achieve their own advantages.


Jews concealed "the washing after copulation" and abandoned it; they allowed for themselves the "drinking of wine" and concealed its forbidding in the Torah; they also allowed the taking of "usury" and "bribe"… etc, and concealed the forbidding of that all in the Torah.


The Quran in fact came to confirm the prohibition of these forbidden things in the Torah, and to remind Jews about the authenticity of such prohibitions, lest they should neglect and conceal them as had their ancestors concealed.


For it is mentioned in the Bible, the Book of Proverbs, chapter 23: 29-35, about dispraising and forbidding the wine:

 “29-Who has woe? Whose father has woe? Who has contentions? Who falls into pits? Who has wounds without cause? Who has redness of eyes?

30-Surely they that pass their time in wine, and study to drink off their cups.

31-Look not upon the wine when it is yellow, when the colour thereof shines in the glass. It goes in pleasantly.

32-But in the end it will bite like a snake, and will spread abroad its poison like a basilisk.

33-The eyes shall behold strange women: and your heart shall utter perverse things.

34-And you shall be as one sleeping in the midst of the sea, and as a pilot fast asleep, when the stern is lost.

35-And you shall say: They have beaten me, but I was not sensible of pain: they drew me, and I felt not. When shall I awake, and find wine again?”


This is mentioned in the Torah about the forbidding of the wine, but they have concealed it and they drink the wine.


And this is, about the washing after copulation, in the Book of Levites (Priests), chapter 15:

"When a man lies with a woman and there is an emission of semen, both must bathe with water, and they will be unclean till evening."


So this is some of what has been mentioned about the washing after copulation, but they concealed it and altered the meaning so that they may not wash after copulation. 


Moreover, their prophet Isaiah rebuked them for their taking the bribe, in the Book of Isaiah, chapter 5:

"Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter.

21Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes and clever in their own sight.

22Woe to those who are heroes at drinking wine and champions at mixing drinks,

23who acquit the guilty for a bribe, but deny justice to the innocent."           


On the other hand, Christians have abandoned the washing after copulation and have forsaken the circumsicion. They take the usury, and they allow themselves the drinking of wine, claim about the Trinity, abandon the worshipping of God and worship the statues of the Christ and his mother, and concealed that which is mentioned in the Torah about the discarding of idols and forbidding of their sanctification and the prostration to them.


For it is mentioned in the Tablets, the Ten Words, in the Book of Deuteronomy, chapter 5, God – be glorified – said:
"You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.

You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God."


So while Christians believe in the Torah, and they read the Ten Words mentioned in the Tablets, but in spite of that they make statues of the Christ and his mother and prostrate themselves to them.

In addition, they conceal the word of the monotheism in the Torah and the Gospel, and they claim about the Trinity.


For it is mentioned in the Bible, the Book of Deuteronomy, chapter 16:

"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one."


And it is mentioned in the Gospel of Mathew, chapter 23, the Christ said:

"And do not call anyone on earth `father,' for you have one Father, and he is in heaven."


And it is mentioned in the Gospel of Mark, chapter 12:
"One of the teachers of the law came and asked him, "Of all the commandments, which is the most important?"

"The most important one," answered Jesus, "is this: `Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one."


So God affirmed in the Gospel the monotheism of the Torah, and he did not approve the Trinity. That is because if you review the Gospel, you will see the repetition of the phrase: (son of man) because the Christ called himself the (son of man), and he did not say: (son of God.)


But on one occasion a possessed man cried out:

"What do you want with us, Son of God?"

[Matthew 8: 29]


So Christians received this word from the mouth of the possessed man, but they neglected about the word of the Christ that he is the (son of man.)


And it is mentioned in the Torah, the Book of Numbers, chapter 23, He said:

"God is not a man, that he should lie, nor a son of man, that he should change his mind."  


So while the Christ surnamed himself the (son of man) so many times in the Gospel, then how do they consider him the son of God?


Moreover, it is confirmed in the Torah that God is neither a man nor yet a son of man, and it is confirmed that He is One but not three as do they claim.





[18] 17. They have disbelieved, those who say: "God is [Jesus] Christ, son of Mary"; say [Mohammed to them]: "Who, then, can prevent God [from doing any harm] should He will to kill [Jesus] Christ, son of Mary and his mother and those in the earth altogether!?" a The sovereignty, of the heavens and the earth b and all [the moons and the meteorites] that is between them belongs to God; He creates whatever c He likes; surely, God is All-Able to do anything d.


17 a It means: if God wants to kill the Christ, the Christ cannot then avert the harm from himself, because he is a created one, not a creator.

17 b i.e. the planets including the earth. And He is All-Able to tear them up and disperse them in one hour.

17 c other planets and moons, .. etc.

17 d Like destroying the present solar system and substituting another solar system instead of the present one.

This is indicated by His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 14: 48, which means:

(On the day [of Doom] when the earth shall be exchanged for another earth, and the [gaseous] heavens too [shall be exchanged for other gaseous heavens]; and [all] shall come forth unto God, the One, the Subduer.)





[19] 18. Jews and Christians say: "We are the sons of God and His beloved ones." a

Say [Mohammed, to them]: "Why then does He punish you b according to your sins?

Not so, you are only mortals: [some] of those whom He has created c:

He forgives to whom d He pleases and chastises whom e He pleases. 

God's is the ownership of the heavens and the earth f and all g that is between them, and the final resorting will be to Him [following your death.] h


18 a i.e. they are so close to God as is the son to his father, because God loves them according to their claim.

18 b In the life of the World by the hand of your enemies, and in the Next Life by Fire to anyone of you disbelieves, as is it in your Book …  if God truly loves you apart from other people.

18 c With no difference between you and them.

18 d i.e. who repents and who deserves the forgiveness.

18 e i.e. who deserves the punishment.

18 f i.e. the ownership of the planets including the earth.

18 g The moons, meteorites, meteors, comets and thunderbolts... by which He destroys, in one minute, whomever He wants to destroy.

18 h It means: your souls will go to him and then He will deal with you according to your acts.





[20] 19. People of the Bible [: Jews and Christians], now has Our messenger [Mohammed] come, expounding to you a after a cessation of the apostles b,

lest you should say [after you die and go to the ether world]: "There came not to us any bearer of glad tidings c nor any warnerd."

However, there has now come to you [Mohammed as] a bearer of glad tidings and a warner e; and God is All-Able to do anything. f


19 a i.e. to explain to you the statements of religion which you concealed, and that in which you differed and which you altered, lest you should say afterwards: "The matter was confounded to us and we did not discern the truth about it"; for Mohammed has now come to you ..

19 b The period between Jesus and Mohammed was 570 years, and from the Exodus of Moses and his people out of Egypt to the time of Jesus was 1515 years.

19 c To give us the glad tidings of Paradise according to the righteous acts and the obedience to which God commanded us.

19 d To warn us against the mistakes that we committed in the religion: including the changing and altering.

19 e Therefore, there will be no excuse for you before God in the Next Life, after Mohammed has been sent, and after his explanation to you.

19 f i.e. He is All-Able to make you dignified if you believe in him, as is He All-Able to humiliate you if you disbelieve in him.





[Then to confirm our prophet, God – be glorified – mentioned the acts of Jews in contradicting their prophet:]

[21] 20. And [mention to them] when Moses said to his people: "My people, remember God's favor to you a: how He made among you prophets b, and made you kings c, and gave you that [d which] He gave not to anyone else out of all nations."


[22] 21. "My people, enter the holy e land [of Jericho, in Jordan] which God has decreed for you [that you will enter it in the future.]

Turn not your backs [in fight] f, for surely you will then lose g.


[23] 22. They said: "Moses, there are powerful giant people h in it; we will not enter it unless they depart from it i; if they depart from it then we will enter [it.]"


[24] 23. Then two men j from among those who feared [God's punishmentk], – God bestowed on both of them [health and long life l]:, said `Enter by the gate [of Jericho] advancing against them; and once you have entered by it, then surely you will be victorious m. And put your trust in God, if truly you are believers.'


[25] 24. They said: "Moses, we will never enter it while they are therein. So go you and your Lord and fight [for our behalf!] We, here, are sitting n."


[26] 25. Said [Moses]: "My Lord, I rule no one [of these people] except myself and my brother [Aaron]; so do Thou part us from the people of the ungodly o."


[27] 26. [God – be glorified –] said: "Henceforth, the [holy land] is forbidden them for forty years p, during which they will wander about throughout the land q. So grieve not over the rebellious people." r



20 a And His bounties to you.

20 b To teach you the details of your religion and to save you from your enemy. Those prophets were Moses, Aaron and Joshua were with them, while those who preceded them were Isaac, Jacob and the patriarchs the sons of Jacob.

20 c And masters of yourselves, after being servants of Pharaoh enslaving and subjecting you.

20 d Blessings: like the parting of the sea, the gushing of water out of the stone and the sending of the "manna" and quails on them, and the over-shadowing of the cloud above you, etc.



21 e i.e. the purified, which is Jericho; God called it ΗαγήσΟψσΣσΙσ"holy" because it is part of Jordan, and Abraham sojourned in Jordan and prayed in it when he departed from Ur in Iraq, then Jacob and his sons resided in Jordan after him.

21 f i.e. listen to the word of God, enter it with war and fighting, but don't return back and don't refuse to enter it.

21 g i.e. you will lose the holy land and God's care about you, if you don't hear His words and work according to His command.



22 h Whom we cannot fight and drive them away from their land.

22 i Without fighting.



23 j Joshua son of Nun and Caleb son of Jephunneh.

23 k And they used not to disobey Him.

23 l Until forty years later, they entered the holy land.

23 m Because God will cast terror in their hearts, so they will run away.



24 n Waiting for their departure [from Jericho.]



25 o He meant by "the ungodly" the ten men whom they sent to Jericho to spy out its land, farms and gardens; but when they returned they started to dispraise it, which was the reason for the rebellion of the Children of Israel and their refusal to conquer it; so God sent down plague on those ten men and they died with it.



26 p During which they will not enter it.

26 q i.e. in the desert, wandering about, and they will not enter the cities.

26 r So they remained in that desert for forty years, and the fathers died gradually, while the sons grew to become strong, and they fought and overcame [their enemies] and, after the death of Moses, they ,together with Joshua, conquered Jericho.





[Then after God – be glorified – explained about the roughness and stubbornness of Jews towards their prophet, He followed that by telling about their envying His messenger Mohammed, because of sending down the revelation to him, and discontinuing to reveal it to them:]

[28] 27. [Mohammed,] recite to the [Jews] the story of the two sons a of Adam with [expounding] the truth; how they offered [each] an offering b; and it was accepted of one of themc, and not accepted of the other d.

Said [Cain to his brother Abel]: "I will surely kill you. e "

Said [Abel]: "God does accept only of those who ward off f [His disobedience.]


[29] 28. "Should you stretch out your hand as for to kill me; I will not stretch out my hand to kill you; [because] I fear God, the Lord of ‘nations and worlds’."


[30] 29. "I wish that you may return [in the Next Life] laden with my sins and your sins, and be [one] of the fellows of the Fire, for such is the recompense of wrong-doers. g "


[31] 30. Then his soul prompted him to kill his brother h, so he killed him, and became one of losers i.


[32] 31. Then God sent forth a crow: scratching into the ground [and burying a dead crow with earth]; j to show him how to conceal the shame of his brother.

"Alas to me!" Said he k, "Am I too helpless to become like this crow and conceal the shame of my brother [with earth]?"

So he became one of the remorseful [about killing him.]


[33] 32. Because of that [incident l], We prescribed for the Childre of Israel m that whosoever kills a human-being, for other than [the retaliation of] man-slaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind n; and whoso saves the life of one o, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind p.

Surely, Our messengers did come to the [Children of Israel] previously with manifest signs, but even after that much many of the [Children of Israel] in the earth exceeded all bounds [in killing people.] q







27 a They were Abel and Cain, and how Cain envied his brother Abel because of his fiancιe: because his fiancιe was more beautiful than the fiancιe of Cain; so the consequence was that he lost in his life of the World and lost the reward of his Next Life, because of the envy.

While his brother Abel gained the good reputation in the life of the World and the prosperity in the Next Life.

Therefore, Mohammed, remind them with this incident so that they may take the lesson and abandon the envy, and believe in that which God revealed to you, and they should not be like Cain, and lose in their life of the  World and in their Next Life, as did Cain lose ..

27 b That is because Adam said to them: Offer a sacrifice to God, then the sacrifice of anyone of you is accepted, he will marry the beautiful girl (The sons of Adam married the girls of the yellow race, i.e. the Chineese; because the yellow race existed before Adam; refer to my book The Universe and the Quran) under the title: Life is transmissible.

The sign for accepting the sacrifice was that a fire would come down of heaven to eat his sacrifice; Abel was a keeper of sheep, and he offered the best ram among his sheep; but Cain was a tiller of the ground, so he offered some wheat out of his harvest. Then a fire came out of heaven to burn the ram of Abel, but no fire came on the wheat of Cain, therefore, the envy of Cain to his brother Abel increased so he killed him .

27 c i.e. of Abel.

27 d i.e. of Cain because he was niggardly, so he offered a little amount of wheat.

27 e Because your offering is accepted, while mine is not accepted.

27 f i.e. those who fear God, so they avoid His disobedience.



29 g Who wrong people and extort their rights.



30 h And he complied with it.

30 i He lost in the life of the World and incurred humiliation and shame, and lost the Next Life so he was admitted into the Fire.



31 j In order that the crow or raven might show him how to conceal the shame of his slain brother.

31 k i.e. When Cain saw the raven doing so, he said:



32 l Which occurred between the two sons of Adam.

32 m i.e. We prescribed for them and wrote in their Torah.

32 n i.e. he will have the punishment of one who kills all mankind.

32 o By saving him from drowning, or burn or any incident that may cause his death, and he saves him from it.

32 p i.e. he will have the reward of one who saves all mankind.

32 q If you like to be sure about their excessive killing of people, read the Book of Judges in their Torah, chapter 20 and what follows it, about an incident that happened to them, when they fought each other and thousands were slain from both sides.





[Then God – be glorified – explained about the dealing with those exceeding in their sins and transgression:]

[34] 33. This is the recompense of those [Jews] who fight against God a and His messengerb, and strive to make mischief in the earth c: they must be slaughtered or crucified or their hands and feet must alternately be cut off, or they must be banished from the land [where they dwell d.]

That e is degradation f for them in this life of the World; and in the Next Life awaits them a mighty chastisement. g


[Then God – be glorified – exempted, out of the Jews, those who repented and believed:]

[35] 34. Except those [Jews] who had repented [and converted] before you have overcome them h, then know that God is Most Forgiving i, Most Mercifulj.


33 a By disobeying His commands and contradicting His laws.

33 b By denying him, barring people from his religion, and by fighting him as did they fight him in the Battle of the Trench; they were the Jewish tribes of Banu Quraiza and Beni Nadhier.

33 c By making seditions.

33 d To another land.
God left the choice free for His messenger either to kill, crucify them, to cut their legs and hands or to banish them from their land to another land faraway from their homeland.

In fact the Prophet killed some of them and banished some others.

33 e Killing, crucifying, cutting the hands and legs and the banishing from their land.

33 f i.e. an exposure and shame.

33 g Commentators have mistaken because they thought the aya means: the high way robbers.

I say: High way robbers do not fight against God nor against His messenger, but their purpose is only the money; in fact, the corruptors who fought God and His messenger Mohammed were the Jews.


Such punishment had frequently been done to their ancestors:
The first time occurred in the time of Moses, when they worshipped the calf; so God commanded them to kill each other : those who did not worship the calf killed those who worshipped it, and they did so.
The second time was in the time of the Judges: in the time of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the brother of Moses: when a sedition occurred between the tribe of Benjamin and the other tribes, so they fought each other and thousands were slain from both sides. However, it is known that the fighting with the sword will result in cutting of the hands of some and the legs of others.

The reason of that was because of a woman raped by some of the men of the tribe of Benjamin. The story is written in the Bible, the Book of Judges: chapter 19 to the end of chapter 21: for in one day, 25 thousand men of the tribe of Benjamin were killed in addition to slaying their women and children and burning their houses. While concerning the other tribes: in the first day, 22 thousand of their men were killed; and 18 thousand of their men were killed in the second day, so in total: 40 thousands of their men were killed [in addition to the 25 thousand men of the Benjamites.]

The third time was by Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon: he killed and crucified them, burnt their houses and took the rest captives to Iraq: to the land of Babylon. Their story is written in the Bible, the Book of Jeremiah, chapter 52.

The fourth time was by Titus the well-known Roman general; that was in the year 70 AD. He killed all the adult Jews: both the military and the civilian, he sold the children as captives, and destroyed Jerusalem which remained as ruins for about 50 years. Refer to the Arabic book (The Global Judaism) by Doctor Riadh Baroodi, page 30.



34 h Of those Jews who fought you: the tribe of Beni Nadhier, the Jews of Khaibar and others.

34 i To those who repent.

34 j To those who surrender.





[Then God – be glorified –   addressed the believers:]

[36] 35. Believers, ward off God['s punishment a], and seek means of nearness to Him b, and struggle in His way; haply you will prosper c [in the life of the World and in the Next Life.]


35 a Concerning His bidding and forbidding.

35 b i.e. seek after the ways and means which bring you close to Him, i.e. to His paradises in the ethereal heavens: that is by means of your righteous deeds and by struglling in His way.

35 c i.e. so that you may then be successful in the life of the World and gain the prosperity of Paradise in the Next Life.





[Then God – be glorified – started to dispraise the disbelievers and threaten them with punishment:]

[37] 36. Those who disbelieve [in Our messenger and in Our revelations];

eventhough they had all [the gold, silver and property] that is in the earth as a whole [: all the planets], and the like of it with it, to ransom themselves thereby from the chastisement a of the Day of Judgment,

it would not be accepted of them;

for them awaits a painful chastisement [in the world of souls after death.]


[38] 37. They will try to get out of the Fire, but they cannot get out of it; they will have a lasting chastisement.














36 a And eventhough they will not be niggardly about it, but the ransom will not be accepted from them, and the punishment will not be alleviated for them.





[Then God – be glorified – explained about the judicial sentence for the thief: male and female:]

[39] 38. And the thief a, male and female: cut off the hands of both, as a recompense of [the theft] that they have earned, and [as] a punishment from God [according to their acts]; God is All-Mighty b, All-Wise c.


[40] 39. But whoso repents d after his evil-doing, and amends e, then God will turn toward him f; surely, God is Most Forgiving g [and] Most Merciful h.


[When the previous aya was revealed about the judicial sentence for the male and female thieves that their hands should be cut off, some of the hypocrites objected to that and denied the hand cutting off.

This in fact was because of a plight of the Jews when they heard the judicial sentence for the thief in the Quran, and they said to those hypocrites: "Mohammed wants to cut off your hands, because this is not the judicial sentence for the thief in the Torah, but if a man steals an ox and slaughters it or sells it, he must pay back five oxen for the ox; and if he steals an ewe, he must pay back four sheep for it. This is written in the Book of Exodus, chapter 22.

So the Prophet – salam to him – was grieved because of their words and denial;

therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[41] 40. Don't you [Mohammed] know that the sovereignty of 'the heavens and the earth'a a belongs to God: He punishes whom He wills, and forgives to whom He likes b b; God is All-Able to do everything.


[42] 41. O messenger, let not those [hypocrites] grieve you who hasten for the unbelief: of such as say with their mouths: "We believe", but their hearts believe not;

And of Jews,

[and the hypocrites] listen to the falsehood [of anyone, of the hypocrites and the disbelievers among their people, that lies to them:];

[and the hypocrites] listen [also] to other [Jewish] men c c who have not come to you [Mohammed] d d perverting the word from its context [after they inserted and intrigued it among Muslims e e];

they say [to the hypocrites:] "If this [statement as in the Torah that the thief must pay a fine four doubles of the theft f f] is told to you, accept it [from Mohammed]; if you are not told with it g g, beware [of Mohammed, and do not accept his judgment; because his purpose is only to cut off your hands.]"

[Then He directed the address to His messenger:]

But whomever God wills to chastise i i, you [Mohammed] can do nothing with God concerning his [guidance];

such [evil-doers and Jewish disbelievers] are they whose hearts: God does not like to purify [from the 'Rayn'mm that covers their hearts j j.] Degradation will be for them in [the life of] the World k k; and in the Next [Life] they will have a mighty chastisementl l.


[43] 42. [They are] listeners to falsehood, devourers of illicit gainm; so if they n come to you [Mohammed] o judge between them [according to the Quran], or turn away from them [lest they should deceive you p];

if you turn away from them, they will hurt you nothing [so that is betterq]; and if you judge, judge justly between them; for God loves the just r.


[44] 43. Yet [O Mohammed] how should they [: the Jews] make you their judge s, seeing they have the Torah including God's judgment t?

Then they turn away [from you u] after that [arbitration]; for they do not believe [in you and in your decision v.]


[45] 44. Surely, We did reveal the Torah wherein is guidance [for the Children of Israel] and light [to those among them guided with it]; according to which were judged those Jewish w:

by the [previous] prophets [of the Children of Israel] who submitted themselves [to God x],

and by the devout worshippers of God and by the rabbis y;

according to [the Torah:] the Book of God that they were bidden to observe z, and they a b were witnesses to it b c.

Therefore, [O rabbis] fear not people, but fear Me [and don't deny My messenger]cd, and barter not My revelations for a little gain d e.

Whoso judge not with that which God has revealed e x: such are the concealers of the truth.


38 a i.e. the one who used to steal; i.e. if he steals three times, then his hand will be cut off in case he is an adult and he is sane.

So if he steals for the first time, he will be lashed and imprisoned; and in the second time the lashing and imprisonment will be doubled for him. And in the third time his right hand will be cut off.

That is because God – be glorified – did not say: (The one who steals, then cut off his hand), but this means: "the one used to steal", then his hand will be cut off if he steals one dinar or more [at the time of interpreting the aya about 1968, the dinar equaled more than three dollars or one and a half pound: the value of the dollar and pound at that time – the translator.]

38 b In His kingdom: He punishes those who contradict His commands.

38 c About "cutting off the hand" to which He commands you.

Ass'ma'ee, the [well-known] writer of the Arab literature, said: I was reciting this aya, but I made a mistake and recited (God is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful) instead of (God is All-Mighty, All-Wise).

Beside me there was a Bedouin Arab, who said: "Whose word is this?"

I said: "The word of God."

He said: "It can't be the word of God."

So I became alert and corrected it to mean (God is All-Mighty, All-Wise).
He said: "Now you have recited correctly; this indeed is the word of God."
I said: "Do you read the Quran?"
He said: "No."
I said: "How then have you known about my mistake?"

He said: "God has the authority and might, so [in this aya] He decided [for the thief] and cut off [his hand]; had He forgiven and been Merciful [in this instance], He would not have cut off." [Therefore, the words used in the aya, should imply the authority and might, and should not imply the forgiveness and mercy. This story implies the eloquence and fluency of the Glorious Quran.]



39 d From stealing.

39 e his corruption: by returning back the stolen money [to its owner] or seeking after the pardon: that the owner of the stolen property may pardon him, and moreover he decides that he should not steal any more.

39 f i.e. God will accept his repentance.

39 g To those who repent.

39 h To those who regret.



40 a a i.e. the ownership of the planets including the earth; so, Mohammed, don't pay attention to their words and their denial.

40 b b i.e. He punishes anyone deserves the punishment, and forgives to anyone repents and is prepared for forgiveness.



41 c c Who said to them: "Mohammed intends to cut off your hands with such judicial sentence, which is also a cruel sentence for the thief.

41 d d In order to discuss with you the judicial sentence of the thief, but that was only a deception and sedition which they inserted and intrigued among Muslims.

41 e e It means: if you inquire and blame them for their words, they answer you that: "we did not speak any word to hurt you, but it is only to your advantage."

41 f f The interpreter said: This [judicial sentence of the Ezra's Torah] is not correct and is not rational: because the one that steals a cow or a sheep, must be poor who does not own any cow or sheep, then how can he afford five cows to pay the fine of his theft?
In fact, God's judicial sentence in the original Torah was the cutting off of the hand, just like in the Quran, but Ezra changed this sentence in his Torah as an alleviation of the thief sentence.

41 g g And if he does not judge according to the Torah.

41 i i Because he wrongs people.

41 m m [The 'Rayn' covers the heart just like the rust which covers the iron.]

41 j j Because of their hypocrisy and wrong-doing.

41 k k With which they will be exposed among people according to their evil acts and their lies.

41 l l In Hell.



42 m And they don't mind.

42 n the Jews.

42 o For judgment.

42 p With their lying and their cunning.

42 q i.e. the turning away from them is safer in the outcome than the judging between them.

42 r In their judgment.




43 s In their legal controversies.

43 t Concerning the murderer and the adulterer, and other religious statements.

43 u i.e. they say to each other: "Let us return to our homes."

43 v i.e. neither do they believe you, nor do they agree about your judgment and your words.




44 w i.e. they judge Jews according to the Torah, and they teach them the affairs of their religion.

44 x And complied to His religion.

44 y i.e. the scholars of religion also teach them the statements of their religion as in the Torah.

44 z i.e. they were trusted with the Torah or the Book of God which He impose on them, and they should observe it as a trust.

44 a b i.e. the devout worshippers of God and the rabbis.

44 b c i.e. they were witnesses to the Book and to the judicial sentence for the thief.

It means: they were present and were witnesses and they saw it by their own eyes that the hand of the thief should be cut off, but the original Torah was torn up by Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon, and this judicial sentence for the thief was written by Ezra in his Torah of his own accord, to make it as an alleviation of the thief punishment.

Then God – be glorified – started to warn the Jewish rabbis contemporary to the Prophet – salam to him – and to threaten them that they should not alter God's statements in the Torah as did Ezra altered, and that they should not deny His messenger Mohammed, for the fear of their chiefs or for coveting the money as did some of those before them:

44 c d And do not conceal the true statement in the original Torah concerning the punishment of the thief, nor the true prophet-hood of Mohammed.

44 d e i.e. for a little recompense in exchange of the revelations.

44 e x In the heavenly Books, so that he changes and alters as did Ezra.





[46] 45. And We prescribed for the [Children of Israel] in the [Torah, to require] 'life for life a, eye for eyeb, nose for nose c, ear for ear d, tooth for toothe, and the retaliation for woundsf.'

But whoso forgoes the [retaliation in a way of charity] it shall be an expiation for his [own sins.]

Whoso judges not by that which God has revealed [in His Book] g: such are the wrong-doers. h


45 a The individual shall be killed for an individual that he killed without right.

45 b The eye shall be gouged out as retaliation for the eye that he gouged out.

45 c The nose shall be cut off in retaliation for a nose that he cut off.

45 d The ear shall be cut off in retaliation for an ear that he cut off.

45 e The tooth shall be extracted in retaliation for a tooth that he extracted.

45 f This is about the intentional or deliberate act, while if by mistake, then the compensation should be taken out of the property of the guilty.

45 g So that, instead of the hand cutting off, he substitutes for the stealing, the fine with four doubles of what the thief steals ..

45 h Who wrong their people and their own souls.


Now, this is written in the Bible, the Book of Deuteronomy, chapter 19: 21; He said:

"Show no pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot."





[47] 46. Subsequent to those [prophets who submitted themselves to God's command] We sent Jesus the son of Mary a, confirming the Torah [: the Ten Commandments inscribed on the Tabletsb] that was by his hands c;

and We gave to him the Gospel d, wherein is guidance e and light f, and [the Gospel] confirmed the Torah [: the Ten Commandments inscribed on the Tablets] that was before it, as  guidance and admonition to those who ward off [God's punishment g.]


[48] 47. So let the People of the Gospel h judge according to what God has revealed in it i.

Whosoever [of Christians] judges not according to what God has revealed j – they are the disobedient.




46 a As an apostle after them.

46 b Which God inscribed for Moses on the Tablets of stone.

46 c i.e. which was present by his hands.

46 d In order that they should believe in it.

46 e Away from error.

46 f For guidance.

46 g By complying to God.





47 h Christian scholars.

47 i About the confirmation of the Torah and the other heavenly books.

47 j In the Tablets, the Torah of Moses and the Quran of Mohammed.





[49] 48. We have revealed to you [Mohammed] the Book [: the Quran] with [explanation of] the truth [by Gabriel, who is] confirming the Book that is by his hands a, and supervising it b.

So judge the [Muslims] according to what God has revealed [in the Quran, by Gabriel c], and do not follow their caprices d, other than the truth that has come to you. e

To each [nation of Jews, Christians and Muslims] of you [: people of the Heavenly Books] We prescribed a divine program [to work accordingly] and a law [to judge accordingly.]

If God wills, He can make you one nation [in the time when the Mahdi: the Comforter will rule];

but that He may try you in what [laws] He has given you [to see which of you obeys and which disobeys];

so race with each other in all virtues [before becoming disabled or ill];

to God['s judgment] shall all of you return [after death]; and He will inform you of the [religious affairs] whereon you were at variance f.


[When the previous aya was revealed, which means:

([Mohammed,] judge the [Muslims] according to what God has revealed [in the Quran, by Gabriel]),

the Jews said: "This is the Torah, so read it to Mohammed in order to see its judicial statement for the thief."

Therefore, this aya was revealed, affirming that which preceded:]

[50] 49. And judge between the [Muslims] according to [the Quran statement about cutting off the thief's hand] that God has revealed [to you, Mohammed],

but do not follow their desires [if they deny your judgment g],

and beware of them lest they should tempt you away from some of [the statements of the Quran] h that God has revealed to you.

But if they turn away [from you, and do not accept God's judgment], know then that God wants to afflict them according to some of their sins i; surely, a large number of people are the disobedient j.







48 a i.e. Gabriel believes the statements of the Book that he brought to you.


48 b i.e. Gabriel keeps and supervises the Quran that he revealed to you.


48 c But never judge according to the Torah of Ezra.


48 d When they deny your judgment and say: "This is not in our Book."


48 e It means: Never judge according to anything other than the Quran that has been revealed to you.


48 f It means: Then We will punish those who contradicted the truth and inclined to the falsehood.















49 g Or even if both parties: Jews and Muslims object to you.


49 h It means:lest they should tempt you away from the correct statement, by inviting you to see their Torah and see its statement about the thief; because it is the statement written by Ezra of his own accord, which was not in the Torah of Moses, so let them not mislead you.


49 i So that He is going to punish them according to their sins in the life of the World, before the Next Life.


49 j Therefore, they do not respond to the truth, so never pay attention to their objection, or to their denial of God's statement.




[51] 50. Is it then the judgment of pagandom that they are seeking? a

Yet who is fairer in judgment than God b, for a people having sure faith? c


50 a This is in reply to the hypocrites who objected to God's statement about cutting off the hand of the thief.

50 b i.e. none gives any statement better than God's judicial statement.

50 c About the truth which they admit.





[When the idolaters were defeated in the Battle of Bad'r, the Muslims said to their Jewish allies: "Believe before God may afflict you with a day like the day of Bad'r!"

So [the Jew] Malik son of Dhaif said: "Are you deluded [with victory] because you defeated a party of the Quraish tribe who were not experienced to fighting? If our leaders command us to gather against you, you cannot then stand against us in fighting."

Then Ubada son of Samit Al-Khazraji came to the God's messenger and said: "God's messenger, I have a large number of Jews who are powerful, and I clear myself of them before God and His messenger, for indeed I have no master but only God and His messenger."

While Abdullah son of Ubay, the chief of the hypocrites, said: "But on my part, I will not clear myself of the Jewish alliance, because I fear lest there should turn to be some hard circumstances, so they are essential for me."

The Prophet – salam to him – said: "Abu Habbab, the alliance with Jews about which you disagree with Ubada son of Samit; it is exclusive to you apart from him." 

Therefore, these ayat were revealed concerning them:]

[52] 51. Believers, take not Jews and Christians as [your] allies; they are patrons of each other;

whoso of you makes them his allies, is one of them a; God guides not the people of the wrong-doers b.


[53] 52. Yet, you [Mohammed] see those [hypocrites] in whose hearts is a disease [of doubting], how eagerly they hasten [to befriend] with the [Jews]; they say: "We fear lest a misfortune should befall us." c

But it may be that God will bestow [on Muslimsd] a favor and victory, or a disaster from Him [will befall your enemy]  e, when they f will regret g because of their [friendship with the Jews] which they hide within their own souls.


[54] 53. And the believers say: "Are these [hypocrites] the men who swore by God their most binding oaths that they were along with you [believers!]? h

Their works have failed i; now they are losers j."




























51 a i.e. he is a disbeliever like them.

51 b To the way of the truth.







52 c They mean the drought, when Jews will not give us the cereals for food. So God forbade them from such pessimism and from relying on Jews:

52 d So that He may give you rain and productive land and provide you with His favor and help you against your enemies; then why do you have such pessimism about the drought?

52 e i.e. God may afflict your enemies with destruction and punishment coming from Him, like disease, defeat, or loss in wealth or casualties .. etc.

52 f Who ally with the Jews.

52 g About their acts and allying with the Jews.





53 h By helping you against the disbelievers, but it has become obvious that they are not like that.

53 i i.e. their efforts have been lost, because they worked according to their vain desires, and the belief that they pretended with has appeared obviously to be false, because their interior did not agree with their exterior.

53 j Of their work, their efforts, their World and their Next Life.





[55] 54. Believers, whosoever of you turns back from his religion,

God will assuredly bring a people He will love, and who will love Him, humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, men who struggle in the cause of God, not fearing the reproach of any reproacher.

That is God's favor; He gives it to whom He will; and God is Most Bountiful, All-Knowing. a



54 a Ali son of Ibrahim son of Hashim mentioned that it was revealed concerning the Mahdi of the [Islam] nation and his companions; the first part of the aya is an address to those who apostatized following the death of the Prophet – salam to him – that is His saying – be glorified - (God will assuredly bring a people) implies that such "people" were not present at the time of revealing the aya, and it includes those who will come after them till Doomsday.

Refer to the Arabic book of Majma Al- Bayan by the Tebrisi, part 3, page 209.





[Then God – be glorified – commanded the allying with believers and forbade the allying with disbelievers:]

[56] 55. Surely, your Patron is exclusively Goda, and His messengerb and the believers c

[Then God started to describe the believers with whom they should ally:]

who perform the prayers, and pay the Zakat [alms] and they are submissive [to God.]d


[57] 56. Whoso takes, for his Patron, God and His messenger and the believers e – surely, the party of God; they are the victors.


55 a He takes care about you and about your affairs, therefore you should ally with Him; i.e. you should love Him, comply to His commands and should never disobey Him.

55 b You should ally with him also.

55 c You should ally with them also.

55 d i.e. they submit themselves to God, comply to His commands and never do they disobey Him.
The meaning: Ally exclusively with the believers among Muslims, but do not ally with the hypocrites among them.


This is indicated by His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 77: 48, which means:

(When it is said to them: "Bow down in prayers [together with those who perform the prayers]”; they bow not down [because of their pride and arrogance.])

It means: When it is said to them: "Submit yourselves to God's command", they do not submit.

Some commentators say that this aya was revealed to praise Imam Ali – salam to him – because he offered a silver ring while he was bowing in prayer.

I say: There is no indication of such thing in the aya, because the context is in plural, and if the aya was special for Ali son of Abu Talib, then God would say:

(And the believer who performs the prayers and pays the Zakat [alms] and he is submissive [to God.])


If somebody says: the plural in the aya is for glorification, I say: God – be glorified – does not glorify man, but it is man that should glorify and sanctify God his Creator.

Moreover, God addressed, in singular, His messenger who is better than Ali, and He did not address him in plural for glorification.


God – be glorified – said in the Quran 3:144, which means:

(Mohammed is only a messenger; messengers were passed away before him.)

And God – be glorified – said in the Quran 28: 46, which means:

(Nor were you [Mohammed] by the side of the Mount [Sinai: Horeb] when We called [Moses, We spoke to him and sent him to Pharaoh.])


God – be glorified – said also in the Quran 28: 44, which means:

(And you [Mohammed] were not on the western side of the Mount Horeb] when We decreed to Moses the matter.)


And God – be glorified – said in the Quran 5: 67, which means:

(O messenger, convey [to your people] what has been revealed to you from your Lord [but fear not.] )


God – be glorified – said also in the Quran 5: 41, which means:

(O messenger, let not those [hypocrites] grieve you who hasten for the unbelief)


Similarly, the Prophet is mentioned in singular in the entire Quran, and there isn't any aya in the Quran that mentions the Prophet in plural.



56 e But he does not ally and befriends with others: the idolaters (: associaters) and the people of the Bible [Jews and Christians], then such one is of God's party.





[Afterwards, God – be glorified – affirmed the forbidding from allying and befriending with disbelievers:]

[58] 57. Believers, take not as your allies (or friends), such as those who take your religion in mockery and sport: of those [Jews and Christians] received the [Heavenly] Book before you, and those unbelievers [among Pagan Arabs] – so ward off God['s punishment; and do not befriend with them a] if you [truly] are believers b.


[59] 58. And when you call c [the Muslims] to the prayer, they take it in mockery and as a sport d; that e is because they are a people with no understanding [so they take God's worship in mockery.]









57 a After you have been forbidden it.


57 b In His warning and threatening.




58 c With the "Azan" or the call to prayer.


58 d And they laugh [about it] with each other.


58 e i.e. their mockery.





[60] 59. Say: "People of the Bible, do you disavow us, for anything but that we believe in God [alone a], and [the Quran] that has been revealed to us and [the Books] that had been revealed [to the prophets] before b, and that most of you are 'rebellious and disobedient'." c


[61] 60. Say [Mohammedd]: "Shall I tell you [Jews] about something worse than that [you mock at, of our religion]e – concerning a reward from God [that will be for us?f]

They are those [your ancestors and you] whom God cursed g, and His wrath was kindled against them h,

and He made out of their [dead bodies] the apes and swines i [in Palestine, after the coming of Nabuchodonosor],

and [those who] served the Taghoot: the tyrant [: Nabuchodonosor, and Pharaoh before him.] j

Those [who served Baal and Astaroth] are [today] worst in abode and farthest [than others] astray from the right way."


[62] 61. When they k come to you [Muslims], they say: "We believe" l; but they have entered [upon you] with unbelief [and denial of your religion], and so have they departed [from your session] with the [same unbelief] m:

God knows very well what [hatred and envy toward you] they were hiding.


[63] 62. And you [Mohammed] see many of them n hastening toward sin o, transgression p and devouring of illicit gain q; evil, indeed, is their bad work.

[64] 63. Why should not the 'worshippers of God' and the 'rabbis' r forbid their speaking of evil words s and their devouring of illicit gain?

Evil, indeed, was their handiwork [of statues and idols to be worshipped.]


59 a i.e. we do not associate with Him anything, as did you, Jews, associate so that you worshipped the calf in the time of Moses and the Baal after him; and we do not say about any trinity, as have you, Christians, claimed about a Trinity and worshipped the statues of the Christ and his mother; and moreover, We believe in all the prophets of God.

59 b But you disbelieved and associated others with God, and therefore you [now] deny our belief in God alone.

59 c In addition to your disbelief and association.




60 d To these Jews who mocked your prayers and denied your belief.

60 e Because we believe in God alone and we do not associate anything with Him.

60 f And we will not have evil as do you claim, but the evil will be for you and your ancestors who associated with God, and worshipped the calf, Baal, and Astaroth.

60 g i.e. God shifted him away from His mercy, and humiliated him.

60 h Because of their disbelieving and worshipping the idols.

60 i i.e. He created the apes and swines, in the country of Palestine, out of their dead corpses, and that was after the event of Nabuchodonosor.

60 j i.e. God caused them to be slaves of Nabuchodonosor who enslaved them for seventy years, as had Pharaoh enslaved them for two hundred years. This is in the in the life of the World; while in the Next Life, the spirits of the associaters and idolaters among them serve the devils in the Barzakh world (or the spirit world or the afterlife world.)




61 k i.e. the Jews.

61 l In Mohammed, but they in fact are disbelievers and liars.

61 m i.e. they departed from you as did they come to you: their doctrines did not change, and neither did they believe, nor did they come in order to convert but actually they came to spy and to make ridicule.




62 n i.e. Jews.

62 o i.e. the disobedience.

62 p On people.

62 q i.e. like the bribe, the usury, the gambling and other kinds of plundering and devouring the property of people.




63 r i.e. the worshippers of the Lord.

63 s When they said: Mohammed is a sorcery and magician, to whom people gathered because of his sorcery and magic.






[65] 64. The Jews a have said: "God's hand is bound with restriction [from expenditure!]" b

[Therefore, God said:]

Bound are their hands [with fetters of iron, in the world of souls, after death], and they are accursed c for saying so.

[Then God rejected their words:]

Not so, but His two hands are open [with generosity]; He expendse as He pleases. f

That [: their dispraisal g in the Quran] which has been revealed to you [Mohammed] from your Lord will surely increase the arrogance and unbelief [about your Book] of much many of [Jews.]

We cast enmity and hatred among them h till Doomsday;

every time [Jews] kindle [with sedition] the fire of war [against Muslims], God does extinguish it.

They strive to make mischief in the earth i, but God loves not mischief-makers j.


[66] 65. But had [Jews and Christians:] the people of the Bible believed [in that revealed to you: Mohammed] and warded off [the unbelief and the mischief], We would have acquitted them of their [past] sins and admitted them [on Judgment Day] into the Gardens of Prosperity [to prosper therein.]


[67] 66. And had they observed the Torah and the Gospel k, and what was revealed to them from their Lord [in the original Torah and the original Gospel, including the belief in Mohammed, the Seal of prophets], l they would surely have eaten [dates, fruits, 'manna' and birds] from above them, and [grains and vegetables] from below their feet.

Out of them are a group of reformers, but much many of them [are exceeding in sins – so] evil are their deeds.




64 a i.e. some of Jews said when their livelihood became hard.


64 b So they ascribed the stinginess to Him.


64 c i.e. they are shifted far away from His mercy.


64 e Out of His treasuries, on His servants.


64 f Neither does anything prevent Him from expending, nor do His treasuries deplete whatever He may expend.


64 g And the exposing of their shameful acts, flaws, disbelief and hypocrisy, all this will increase their arrogance toward you, Mohammed, and on those believing in you.


64 h i.e. among Jews and Christians, which will continue till Doomsday.


64 i By stirring the sedition, transgressing on the honor and misleading the common people.


64 j Therefore, God does not guide them to the Islam because they are hypocrites and mischief doers.









66 k i.e. had they worked in the past according their statements, and hadn't they changed the monotheism (and the exclusive devotion to God alone), and hadn't they altered the religious rules included in them.

66 l i.e. then We would have increased Our blessings on them ..





[When the Prophet proclaimed his message to [his tribe:] Quraish, he received much of their hurt in addition to the denial and mockery, so he started to call people secretly, not publicly, and he dawdled about the mission (or the call to the Islam); therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[68] 67. O messenger, convey [to your people] what has been revealed to you from your Lord [but fear not];

if you do it not, then you will not have conveyed His message [to people],

and God will protect you from people [so they will not kill you];

surely, God guides not the people of the 'unbelievers and ungrateful' [to God's grace.] a


67 a i.e. He will not guide them to the correct way; so don't dawdle over carrying out your duty, in case they deny that of you; for God guides whomever He pleases.

Some commentators say: "God – be glorified – commanded the Prophet to assign Ali, son of Abu Talib, as a caliph of Muslims, following him; but the Prophet concealed it because he feared that some of the Muslims may object to it, and for this reason this aya was revealed!"

I say: There isn’t any indication in the aya about such thing; if their claim was true and the Prophet feared of some of the Muslims, then God – be glorified – would say in the end of the aya: "God guides not the people who are disobedient."

But God in fact said that (God guides not the people who are 'disbelievers and ungrateful' [to God's grace.])

This indicates that the 'conveying' is in particular for disbelievers, not for Muslims.

Second: If their claim was right, then we would find the aya, in any soora of the Quran, in which God ordered the Prophet to assign Ali as the caliph after him; while in fact there is no such aya in the Quran in which God commanded the Prophet to do that.





[69] 68. Say: "People of the Bible, you rest on no [sound religion] until you 'correct and observe' the Torah and the Gospel a and [the rules and duties in the original Torah and the original Gospel b] that were revealed to you from your Lord."

But [their dispraise c] that has been revealed to you [Mohammed, in the Quran] from your Lord will surely increase much many of them in arrogance d and unbeliefe; so grieve not for a people who are unbelievers [neither in the Quran, nor in you.]


[When His saying – be glorified – in the previous aya was revealed, which means: (so grieve not for a people who are unbelievers [neither in the Quran, nor in you.]), the Jews said: "So all Jews from the time of Moses till now are unbelievers according to your claim!?"

[Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[70] 69. Those who believe [in you, Mohammed] and those who are Jews, Sabaeans and Christians [before your coming, O Mohammed] – any [of them] who believes in God [alone, associating not anything with Him] and the Last Day [: the Doomsday f] and works righteous [deeds] – on them shall be no fear [from devils, in the World of souls, after death], nor shall they grieve [for leaving the life of the World.]





68 a i.e. until Jews correct the Torah, and Christians correct the Gospel; i.e. to correct what they changed and altered in both of the Torah and the Gospel.


68 b Including the belief in the Seal of prophets: Mohammed, son of Abdullah.


68 c And the correction of their mistakes.


68 d About you.


68 e In your Book.










69 f i.e. Because the earth will tear up on that day, so there will be no day and night on it afterwards.





[71] 70. We ratified the covenant with the Children of Israel [to worship God alone a] and sent them messengers [or apostles after Mosesb]:

whenever there came to them a messenger with what their souls desired not c – some [messengers] they denied [like Isaiah, Jeremiahs, Jesus ,etc.], and others they slew [like John, Zachariah , etc.]


[72] 71. And they d supposed they will not be punished [in the life of the World, according to their acts]; so they were blind [to Our messengerse] and deaf [so they did not listen to their words;therefore, We set their enemies against them. f]

Then God turned towards them [because of their crying and supplicating Him].

Then again they were blind, much many of them, and deaf: [so We took revenge on  them and sent against them the king of Babylon g.]

And God is All-Seeing what [deception and plot, now] they do [against you, Mohammed.] h


70 a But not to associate anything with Him.

70 b To remind them of the covenant and guide them to worship God alone and to forbid them from worshipping idols and statues, but they did not listen to their words nor did they hold fast with the covenant.

70 c With that which does not agree with their purpose.


71 d i.e. Jews.

71 e And they did not pay attention to them.

71 f Who abased them.

71 g Who destroyed them.

71 h So He will punish them according to such of their acts.


The story [of the idolatry of the Children of Israel]

The Children of Israel disbelieved following the death of Solomon, they associated and worshipped two calves of gold made for them by Jeroboam, and they worshipped the star Sirius; so god sent them the prophets to guide them to worship God, and to warn them against worshipping the idols, but they denied them, killed some of them and drove out the others.

Afterwards, God sent them the prophets Isaiah then Jeremiah whom they denied and did not listen to their words.


So God sent against them Holofernes the general of the army of Nabuchodonosor with big armies, who besieged them and cut off the water stream from them, and they were about to die from thirst.


And they complained their condition to God, cried, repented, humiliated themselves and supplicated God, so He forgave and saved them from the army of Holofernes.


And that was by the hand of a widow called Judith, who cheated the army general, by giving him wine until he slept and afterwards she killed him. And God cast terror in the hearts of his hosts who were defeated before Jews, and they returned to Iraq.


Few years later, the Children of Israel returned to their usual disbelief and association [idolatry]; so God sent them Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon, with a big army, he besieged and destroyed them utterly, and took the rest captives to Iraq and enslaved them for seventy years.


So the previous aya points out to those events in summary. 





[Then God – be glorified – started to dispraise Christians:]

[73] 72. They are disbelievers who say: "God is the Christ the son of Mary."

While the Christ said a: "Children of Israel, worship God: my Lord and your Lord b.

Surely, whoso associates [anyone] with God, God has forbidden him Paradise c, and his resort will be the Fire.

Wrong-doers d will have no helpers [to save them from the chastisement.]"




72 a When he came to them.


72 b And associate or join none with Him.


72 c So he will not enter it on Judgment Day, even though he fasted and prayed all the days of his life.


72 d Who wrong themselves by worshipping those other than God.





[Then God – be glorified – started to dispraise the other party of Christians who claimed about the Trinity:]

[74] 73. They are disbelievers who say: God is one of three a [in a Trinity]: while there is no god b except One God.

If they c desist not from such [blasphemy] words of theirs, a vigorous penalty [in the Next Life] will surely befall the disbelievers d among them [: Christians.]


[75] 74. Wouldn't they not then turn to God e, and ask His forgiveness f, while God is Most Forgiving g, Most Mercifulh?


[76] 75. The Messiah, son of Mary, was only a messenger i, [so many] messengers before him passed away [so why do you glorify him alone, excluding others?]

His mother was a true believer [in the Ten Commandments j of her Lord]; [the Messiah and his mother] both ate food [and anyone eats food, has to relieve nature, therefore how could they be gods?]

See [Mohammed] how We make clear the revelations to them k; then see how perverted they are [away from the truth!]


[Then God gave more arguments against them:]

[77] 76. Say [to them, Mohammed]: "Do you serve, apart from God, [the Messiah] that [now] cannot hurt or profit you [because he died and his soul ascended to heaven, to be among angels l];

while God is the All-Hearing [of any who cries to Him], the All-Knowing [of any who supplicates Him?]


[78] 77. Say: "people of the Bible m, do not go [about the Christ n] beyond the bounds, in your religion, other than the truth [that the Christ is the son of man, not the son of God o],

and follow not the vain desires of a people [: your chiefs, monks and clergymen] who went astray before [away from the truth, seeking after wealth and position], and led astray much many [of peoplep], and themselves erred from the plain way [of Paradise, so they reached the Fire in the Next Life.]



73 a They are: a father, a son and a holy spirit; they mean by the father: is God: a spirit without body; the son: the Christ and the Holy Spirit is the entering of the spirit i.e. the father in the body of the Christ, so it became composed of a spirit and a body according to their claim whom they call: the Holy Spirit, and therefore they say: the three are one.
Glorified be God above the matter and above entering any body.

So God denied that:

73 b In the entire universe.

73 c Who claim about the Trinity and about the Christ being God Himself.

73 d i.e. Who claim about the Trinity and about the Christ being God Himself.


74 e And refrain from such words and false doctrines which they embrace.

74 f For their past association and sins.

74 g To those who repent.

74 h To those who regret.


75 i Whom God sent to the Children of Israel.

It is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew chapter 10: 40

"He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one who sent me."

So God sent him to the Children of Israel, but he was not the first messenger or apostle so that you glorify him in particular and you consider him as god, but in fact...

75 j Inscribed on the Tablets.

75 k Indicating their mistake and the falsehood of their doctrines.

So the first "see" is to see His wise acts about expounding the revelations, and the second "see" is to see their foolish acts and refraining from contemplating the revelations.

This is about the Christ and his mother eating food:

It is written in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 11, the Christ said:

"The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, `Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and "sinners."' But wisdom is proved right by her actions."

And it is written in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 24, he said:

"And while they still did not believe it because of joy and amazement, he asked them, "Do you have anything here to eat?"

They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate it in their presence."

76 l So he cannot hear you if you call him, and he does not know about you if you prayed him.

77 m i.e. people of the Gospel here.

77 n i.e. don't be enthusiastic about the Christ, for he is only God's servant and apostle whom He sent to the Children of Israel, as had He sent many apostles [: messengers] before him.

77 o And he is an apostle, but not any god, as do you claim.

77 p Away from the truth.





[79] 78. Cursed were the unbelievers among the Children of Israel by the tongue of David a and Jesus, Mary's son b; thatc was because they rebelled [against the command of their Lord] and used to transgress [on His prophets.]


[80] 79. Nor did they [: Children of Israel] forbid one another the iniquities which they committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they used to do.


[81] 80. You [Mohammed] see many of them d making the unbelievers their friends e. Evil is that they forwarded [to the Next Life] for their souls [by befriending with the unbelievers] f: that God is angered against themg and in the chastisement [of Hell] they shall dwell [foreverh.]


78 a i.e. David cursed them in his Psalms.

78 b In his Gospel.

78 c Disgrace for them.


Now, this is written in the Psalms by the tongue of David when they sought as to kill him,

·         which is in the Psalm 12, Prophet David said supplicating his Lord in secret:

(Help, Lord, for the godly are no more; the faithful have vanished from among men.

Everyone lies to his neighbor; their flattering lips speak with deception.

May the Lord cut off all flattering lips and every boastful tongue

that says, "We will triumph with our tongues; we own our lips—who is our master?")


·         David said also in the Psalm 21:

(Your hand will lay hold on all your enemies; your right hand will seize your foes. At the time of your appearing you will make them like a fiery furnace. In his wrath the Lord will swallow them up, and his fire will consume them. You will destroy their descendants from the earth, their posterity from mankind.

Though they plot evil against you and devise wicked schemes, they cannot succeed; for you will make them turn their backs when you aim at them with drawn bow.

Be exalted, O Lord, in your strength; we will sing and praise your might.)


·         Moreover, David said in the Psalm 55:

(Confuse the wicked, O Lord, confound their speech, for I see violence and strife in the city.

Day and night they prowl about on its walls; malice and abuse are within it.

Destructive forces are at work in the city; threats and lies never leave its streets.)


While it is said by the tongue of Jesus, son of Mary, in the Gospel;


·         in the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 23, Jesus said:

("Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You shut the kingdom of heaven in men's faces. You yourselves do not enter, nor will you let those enter who are trying to.)


·         And it is written in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 11, Jesus said:

("Woe to you Pharisees, because you give God a tenth of your mint, rue and all other kinds of garden herbs, but you neglect justice and the love of God. You should have practiced the latter without leaving the former undone.

"Woe to you, because you are like unmarked graves, which men walk over without knowing it.")


·         And he said:

("Woe to you, because you build tombs for the prophets, and  it was your forefathers who killed them.

So you testify that you approve of what your forefathers did; they killed the prophets, and you build their tombs.)


80 d i.e. Jews.

80 e i.e. they ally with the pagan Arabs: the idolaters, while they oppose the Muslims who are monotheists [devoting themselves exclusively to God alone.]

80 f i.e. Because  they preferred the idolaters among the Quraish tribe to the monotheists.

80 g i.e. Because of their infidelity and association with God.

80 h On Doomsday.





[82] 81. Had the [idolaters of Mecca] believed [as do Muslims believe] in God and the prophet [Mohammed] and [the Quran] revealed to him, then the [Jews] would not have made the [idolaters] their friends a, but much many [of Jews] are disobedientb.



81 a And rather they would have opposed them, as have they opposed the Muslims.


81 b By nature: they do not incline to the truth, but usually they deviate from it.





[83] 82. You [Mohammed] will surely find the most hostile out of all people to those who believe a are the Jews and the idolaters b; and you will surely find the nearest of them in love to the believers those who say: "We are Christians"; that c is, because some of them are priests d and monks e, and they wax not proud.



82 a i.e. to those who believe in you, Mohammed.


82 b Among the Arab; also they have severe hostility to Muslims.


82 c Love.

82 d i.e. the scholars of Christian.

82 e i.e. the ascetics of Christians.





[This aya was revealed concerning Najashi (king of Abyssinia at that time) and his companions:]

[84] 83. And when they [: Najashi and his friends who were Christians and converted] hear [the Quran] revealed to the messenger [Mohammed], you see their eyes overflow with tears because of the truth they have recognized; they say: "Our Lord, we have believed a, so decree to us to be among those who testify [and admit the truth.]"


[85] 84. "Why should we not believe in God [alone, and abandon the doctrine of the Trinity after discovering the truth] and [believe in] the truth that has come to us [included in the Quran], and hope that our Lord will admit us [into Paradise] together with the righteous people [in the Next Life.]"


[86] 85. And God has rewarded them for what they had said b with Gardens in which rivers flow below their [trees] to abide therein forever; such c is the recompense [in the Next Life] of the good-doers.


[87] 86. And those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations [that We reveal to Mohammed included in the Quran], such will be the fellows of Hell.










83 a In your revelations and in your messenger Mohammed.



















85 b When they admitted the monotheism for God, but not the Trinity, and when they believed His messenger Mohammed,



85 c Abiding forever.








[One day, the Prophet delivered an address to people in which he dispraised the life of the World and what it includes, and stirred the desire of people about the Next Life; then a group of Muslims decided to fast every day and to keep vigil every night for worship, and that they would not eat any wholesome and delicious food, and that they would not make any sexual contact with their wives; therefore, this aya was revealed concerning them:]

[88] 87. Believers, forbid not [for yourselves] such good things [of the food, the dress and wives] as God has made lawful to you,

and transgress not [on the religion by changing its statements, and then people will imitate such acts of yours];

God loves not transgressors.


[89] 88. But eat of that [good and wholesome food] which God has provided for you, being lawful [to you] and good, and ward off [the punishment of] God a in Whom you are believers.




























88 a Therefore, don't alter His statements.





[90] 89. God will not require of you concerning your unintentional oaths a,

but He will require of you concerning your oaths that you affirm. b

The expiation thereof c is to feed ten of the needyd with the average of the food you serve to your families, or to dress them, or to free a slavee; but whoso has not the means f, let him fast three days. That is the expiation for the oaths you have sworn g; but adhere to your oaths h.

As such does God expound to you His revelations that you may be grateful [to His bounties.]


89 a The"unintentional oath" is when man swears mistakenly and unintentionally, or while he forgets, or it rushes by his tongue unintentionally;

e.g. if someone asks you: "Have you seen John?"

And you answer: "No, by God, I have not seen him."

Then you remember you saw him one hour or more ago; so this is the forgetfulness, and you have to ask God's forgiveness; and similarly in case you swear unintentionally and mistakenly or it came to your tongue, so then you have to ask God's forgiveness.

89 b The indication of this is His saying – be glorified – in the Quran 16: 91, which means:

(And break not oaths, after having ratified them [with God’s name], and [after] you have made God your 'Surety'.)

So the "affirmed oath": is to make a covenant or pact for something and you swear to it.

And the "ratified oath": is to say: By God, by God, by God!

89 c Of the "affirmed" or "ratified" oath if you swear with it, then you break it, then the expiation is due of you.

89 d This is for the one with average outcome.

89 e This is for the rich.

89 f i.e. money or food to feed ten of the needy.

89 g Then you have broken your oaths.

89 h i.e. keep up and observe your oaths, and don't break them unless being obliged to do so. And you have then to give the expiation.





[91] 90. Believers, the wine a, the gambling b, idol-altars c and Azlam [lots] d [all these] are but filthy [psychological] illness [: some] of Satan handiwork e, so avoid that; haply you may succeed f.


[Afterwards, God explained the corruption and harm included in both of the wine and the gambling:]

[92] 91. Satan intends only to excite enmity and hatred among you by means of the wine and gambling g, and to turn you away h from remembering God i and from [observing] the prayers j. Will you then refrain k?


[93] 92. Obey God l and obey the messenger m, and beware [of turning away from him!]

But if you [believers] turn away [from him and do not listen to his words,] know then that the duty of Our messenger is only to convey [the message] plainly, [while it is up to Us to punish severely.]


90 a It is every beverage causing drunkenness.

90 b With its various kinds.

90 c These were some big stones on which the idolaters used to sacrifice the cattle for the idols; it means: Don't eat of the cattle sacrificed to idols because it is an abomination.

90 d They are some goblets by which they used to have shares in the slaughtered camel; it is something like the gambling.

90 e Satan invented them for you, in order to hinder you from remembering God, and to stir enmity among you because of such abominations.

90 f By avoiding them, and so that you will not lose.



91 g So the one who drinks wine: the wine will obliterate his mind and wisdom, so that he will speak impolite words, and it may lead him even to quarrelling and fighting.

While the gambling may lead man to gamble on his family and property, so that he will be sad and deprived: looking to his property by the hand of others which may lead to enmity and hatred; these are some of their corruption in the World; while about their corruption of the religion:

91 h By letting you be busy and occupied with them.

91 i With which the hearts will be revived.

91 j Which is the axis of the religion.

91 k From committing them.



92 l By avoiding what He forbids you from.

92 m By obeying his guiding and instructions.





[God – be glorified – has forbidden in the previous aya 5: 90, three things: the "wine" which is every beverage causing drunkenness, second: the "gambling" and the third: the "idol-altars and Azlam [lots]" which is the meat distributed in the name of idols; then some of the Prophet companions said: "God's messenger, we drank the wine in the past, ate some of such meat and practiced the gambling, and we are afraid lest we sinned about that!"

Therefore, His saying – be glorified – in this aya 5: 93 was revealed:]

[94] 93. On those who believe and do righteous [deeds], there is no blame a for what [wine] they consumed [in the past b], when they will [afterwards] ward off [the drinking of wine] and believe [in its prohibition, and will not object], and will do righteous [deeds, after having warded off the wine c],

then they will ward off [the gambling] and believe [in its prohibition, and will not object],

then they will ward off [eating the meat of idol-sacrifices d] and will be kind [to the poor e, for the sake of God]; God loves those who are kind [to people.]












93 a Nor any sin.


93 b Before forbidding it.



93 c Because the one who drinks it may commit major crimes, and the one who refrains from it will incline to righteousness.



93 d And which were sacrificed on the altars, dedicated for the idols, and distributed by lots of the Azlam: therefore, the believers should not eat any of it and they should not sacrifice for anyone other than God, as do idolaters and associaters do, but the believers should sacrifice for God and for His sake and in His way.


93 e By feeding them some of the meat of the cattle which they sacrifice to God.





[95] 94. Believers, God will surely try you with something of the [land-] game a that your hands b and lances c attain, that God may know [by this trial] who fears Him in secret d [when he is not seen by anyone, so he avoids chasing in the days of pilgrimage and in the inviolable months.]

Whoso, after this [prohibition] transgresses [and chases again e], there awaits him [in the Next Life] a painful punishment f.


[Then God – be glorified – explained the kind of the expiation:]

[96] 95. Believers, kill not the [land] game while you are in the pilgrimage sanctity g.

Whoso of you does so intentionally, there shall be recompense [for it] – the like [in creationh ] of what he has killed, in flocks, as shall be judged i by two men of equity among you, an offering that should be brought to the Ka'aba j; or [as] expiation: he shall feed [ten] poor persons k, or to fast [ten days:] the equivalent of thatl ; that he m may suffer of the evil consequences of his deed.

God has pardoned [him by his expiation] that which is past; whoso offends again n, God will take vengeance on himo; God is All-Mighty [and is] Vengeful p.


[97] 96. Permitted to you is the game of the sea q [: the fishing], and its food [fished by others, and the tinned fish and the dried salted fish] r, as provision for you [who reside] and for travellers;

but forbidden to you is the game of the land, so long as you remain in the sanctity of the pilgrimage [or the ‘Umrah’ s or in the four inviolable months];

and ward off [the punishment of] God t, to Whom you shall be gathered together u [on the Day of Judgment, when He will punish you for your disobedience.]


94 a Not the sea fishing.

94 b i.e. your hands attain the small animals like the chicken and eggs and what cannot escape.

94 c i.e. the big of the animals which you hunt with your lances or spears.

94 d Because of his firm belief, other than the one who does not fear Him because of his weak belief.

94 e in the days of the pilgrimage or in the inviolable month.

94 f if he does not atone for his sin, by giving the expiation.




95 g In the days of pilgrimage and in the inviolable months.

95 h So that if he kills an ostrich, its expiation will be a camel; if he kills a wild ass or its like, its expiation will be a cow; and if he kills a gazelle or a rabbit, then its expiation will be an ewe.

95 i i.e. two righteous men, out of your religion, will judge for the expiation of the chase, to see does this expiation equal the value of the game which he has killed or equal its weight.

95 j So that he takes his offering to the Inviolable Mosque, and gives it to one of the Ka'aba servants.

95 k Feeding them a [meal], either a lunch or a dinner, if he cannot offer the offering.

In fact, the number of the poor men has not been mentioned in this aya, because their number had been mentioned in the aya 5: 89 in the expiation of the swearing by God, which is His saying – be glorified – that means:

(The expiation thereof is to feed ten of the needy with the average of the food you serve to your families.)

95 l So that he fasts ten days instead of feeding ten of the poor, that is if he cannot feed the food.

95 m i.e. the chaser: so that such expiation will be a punishment according to his bad act.

95 n So that he once again kills the land-game.

95 o And will not pardon him.

95 p So that He takes revenge on anyone who contradicts His commands.




96 q The (game of the sea) includes all water bodies like rivers, pools, streams and lakes; the (game of the sea) is the fishing of fishes. 

96 r This is to explain that both the new and the old fish is lawful.

96 s i.e. [visiting the House of God at Mecca, in any time other than the time of the pilgrimage.]

96 t So that you should not disobey His commands.

96 u In the space.





[98] 97. God has appointed the Ka'aba: the Inviolable House, a means of 'support and maintenance of livelihood' for the people [of Mecca a], as [has He] also [appointed] the Inviolable Month b, the offering [for sacrifice], and the necklaces c –

so that you may know [for certain] d that God knows all [the birds flying] in the [gaseous] heavens and all [the beasts moving] on the earth e, and that God is All-Knowing about everything [before creating it.]


97 a And its inhabitants. That is by means of the pilgrims who come to it from every country, so the people of Mecca and those who dwell in it will have advantage by buying and selling and so on.

97 b Also a means of 'support and maintenance of livelihood' for them; because pilgrims come for pilgrimage in the month of Zul-Hijjah, and they come for the Umrah (or visiting the House of God at Mecca, at any time other than the time of the pilgrimage.)

So they come to the 'Umrah’ (or the visitation to the House of God at Mecca) in the [four] inviolable lunar months: Zul-Hiiiah, Rajab, Zul- Qa’dah and the Muharram.

97 c Which are also the means of 'support and maintenance of livelihood' for them, and for their security and an answer to the call of their father Abraham who said as in the Quran 2: 126, which means:

("My Lord, make this [Mecca] a secure [city], and provide its people with fruits [and products] – such of them as believes in God and the Last Day.")

97 d That God does not break His promise; so as Had He promised Abraham to make Mecca a place of security for its inhabitants, and to provide for them with fruits [and products], He has fulfilled His promise to them, and that God knows...

97 e So He had prepared their livelihood and their needs in their lives before did He create them.





[99] 98. Know that God is Terrible in retribution a, and God is Most Forgiving b, Most Mercifulc.


[100] 99. The duty of the messenger is only to convey [the message]; [but the rewarding and the punishing is up to God]; God knows whatever you [people] reveal and whatever [secrets] you hide [in your breasts.] d



98 a To those who associate or join others with Him and contradict His commands.


98 b To those who devote themselves to God alone when they repent.


98 c To those who regret.




99 d So He deals with you accordingly.





[A Muslim came to the Prophet – salam to him – and said: "Is the meat of the raven lawful?

The prophet said: "It is abhorrent (disliked or undesirable or detested or reprehensible.)"
The man said: "It is available in large numbers; so had it been lawful, we would have filled our stomachs with it!"

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[101] 100. Say [Mohammed to this man]: "The bad and the good [kinds of meat] are not equal a, though the abundance of the bad [bird] attracts you [man]b; so ward off [the punishment of] God c, O intelligent men; haply so you will prosper [in all your affairs.]










100 a It means: The meat of the raven is not equal with the meat of other birds.


100 b Because the bad is not wholesome or tasty for eating.


100 c And don't eat that which you are forbidden from.





[A Muslim asked the Prophet – salam to him: "My father died as an idolater, following the religion of the pre-Islam pagandom; will he go to Paradise or to Fire?"

The Prophet said: "Every (idolater or) associater is in the Fire."

The man said: "How can that be, while he used to feed the poor and make pilgrimage to the House of God at Mecca!?"

Another man said: "My brother followed the religion of the pre-Islam pagandom; so is he in the Fire?"

The Prophet said: "Every (idolater or) associater is in the Fire."

Then when Khansa [who was a female poet] converted to the Islam, she too asked the Prophet about her brother Sakh'r, and the Prophet said: "He is in the Fire."

She said: "You have increased my sadness."

And so on, they asked the Prophet about their fathers and grandfathers; therefore, this aya was revealed about them:]

[102] 101. O believers, ask not about matters which, if they are shown to you, will vex you a; yet if you ask [the prophet] about them [once again, he will not answer you, but] in light of the Quran, they will become obvious to you b.

God has pardoned that c; for God is Most Forgivingd, All-Clement e.

[103] 102. Some people before you asked [their messengers] such questions f, then [likewise] did they deny them [of their messengers.] g

















101 a i.e. will increase your sadness and worry.

101 b i.e. you will realize the answer of that from the Quran: which is included in His saying – be glorified – 5: 72, which means:

(Whoso associates [anyone] with God, God has forbidden him Paradise, and his resort will be the Fire.)

It means: Look to the doctrines of your fathers and compare them to the Quran, which will tell you about their destiny: anyone of them was an associater (or idolater), then he is in the Fire; and anyone devoted himself to God alone and he was a God-fearing, then he is in Paradise.

101 c i.e. God has pardoned you when you asked the Prophet about it then you denied his answer.

101 d To those who repent.

101 e So He does not hasten to punish.




102 f i.e. the past nations had asked their apostles as have you asked.

102 g i.e. they denied such answers, as did you deny it of the Prophet when he answered you.





[The associaters (or the idolaters) used to dedicate a share of their cattle to the idols, vow and sacrifice to them; they called such dedicated cattle with names:the Baheira, the Sa'iba, the Wassiela and the Hamie; and they said: God commanded us to do this.

Therefore, God denied their claim by this aya:]

[104] 103. God has not ordained cattle dedicated to idols a, such as Bahiera b, Sa'iba c, Wassiela d, Hamie e; but the unbelievers forge against God falsehood, and most of them have no understanding f.


[105] 104. When it is said to them g; "Come to that [statements] which God has revealed [in the Quran], and [come] to the messenger", they say: "Enough for us are [the traditional ways] that we found our fathers following."

[So God rejected their words:]

What! Even though their fathers did not know anything [of the religion] nor were they guided [to the truth?]"


103 a It means: God did not prescribe that for you, nor did He reveal it in any Book, but you follow Satan by this and follow your own desires.

103 b The "Bahiera" is the she-camel, when it produced five times, the last of them being a male, they would incise its ear and refrain from riding it, and moreover it would not be driven away from the water, nor would it be prevented from the pasture; and when anyone tired out sees it, he should not ride it, and its milk is for the poor who may milk it.

103 c The "Sa'iba" is the cattle which they used to set free according to their vows: so when a man vowed to come from a journey or be cured from a disease or something like that, he would then say: "I set free my she-camel." So it would be set free for the idols; i.e. would be freed for the idols.
A man might set free, out of his cattle, whatever he liked, and he would take that to the custodians or servants of the idols to feed the way-farers of its milk.

103 d The "Wassiela" is the female sheep or the ewe, if it gives birth to a female, then it will be for them, but if it gives birth to a male, they dedicate it to the idols; but in case it gave birth to a male and a female, they would say: it conjoined its brother, so they would not sacrifice the male to their idols.

103 e The "Hamie" is the male camel; the Arab had a custom that when ten of camels were produced of the seed of a camel, they said: his back has become hot; so that nothing would be carried on its back, neither would it be prevented from the water nor from the pasture.

And as such were their customs and habits.

103 f i.e. they do not use their minds because they only imitate and follow others blindly.



104 g i.e. these associaters or idolaters who assigned the "Bahiera" and the "Sa'iba"






[106] 105. Believers, mind [and reform] yourselves; those astray will not harm you if you are rightly guided a.

To God you will return all together [: you and your fathers], and He will tell you about what you were doing.b



105 a i.e. as long as you believe in God and His messenger, the disbelief and idolatry of your fathers will not harm you; each one is responsible about his own sins.


105 b Then He will reward you according to your acts.





[Three men, who were merchants, set out of the Medina city to Syria; they were Tameem son of Awss the Darimi, and his brother Oday; these two were Christian, and the son of Abu Mariya the servant of Am'r son of al-‘As al- Sahmi who was a Muslim.

When they were at some distance on their way, the Muslim became ill, so he wrote his will and hid it in his luggage, and he recommended them, paid the money to them and said: "Give this to my family."

Then when he died, they opened his luggage, took out of it what they liked, then they brought the money and property back to his family.

But when the latter checked the money and property, they found some of that ,which was with [their relative], missing; so they sued them to the Prophet – salam to him; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[107] 106. Believers, let there be a testimony that you should keep up between you, when any of you is on the point of death a, at the time of bequeathingb – c shall be two men of equity among you [Muslims] or two of [those] other than you [: two non-Muslimsd] – if you travel throughout the earth e and the incident of death befalls you f; you detain them both g after the prayer, and let them both swear by God – in case you doubt [their truthh – ]: "We will not exchange the [oath by God] for any price, eventhough the [beneficiary] are our near kinsman, nor will we hide [any part of] the testimony of God, or else we will be sinful. i "


[When the first aya was revealed, the Prophet – salam to him – prayed the obligatory afternoon prayer, then he called the two Christians: Tameem and Oday, and demanded of them to swear: "By God we did not take anything other than this, neither did we conceal it!"

And when they swore, the messenger of God released them.

Afterwards, they found with them a silver vessel decorated with gold, and they said: "This was among the luggage of the deceased."

The two Christians said: "We bought it from him, but we forgot to tell you about that."

So they sued them to the messenger of God; therefore, His saying – be glorified – in this aya 5: 107 was revealed.

Then two men among the nearest relatives of the deceased: Am'r son of al-‘As al- Sahmi and Muttalib son of Abu Wada'a al- Sahmi, stood and swore by God that the two Christians had betrayed and lied; so the vessel were given to them and to the deceased's nearest family members.

After he converted to the Islam, Tameem said: "God is Truthful as is His messenger: It was I who took the vessel; so I repent to God and ask His forgiveness."]

[108] 107. Afterwards if it is found that both of them j merit [the suspicion of] sin k, let two others stand forth instead of them l [to give testimony], of those most nearly concerned m, on whom it is incumbent [to swear] n,

so let them swear by God o, [and say]: "Surely our testimony is truer than their testimony p and we have not trespassed [the truth], for then [if our oath was false] we would be the wrong-doers."


[109] 108. That q is more likely that they r will bear true witness s, or they t will fear that oaths [of the kinsmen of the deceased] other than theirs may be acquired u. Ward off [the punishment of] God v and hearken [to the admonishing], for [on Doomsday] God guides not the disobedient people [to Paradise.] w











106 a So that you appoint two witnesses to witness about the recommending one and the recommended one.


106 b By the one who is about to die.


106 c The witnesses shall be …


106 d If you don't find the two witnesses out of your religion followers.


106 e i.e. if that is during the journey.


106 f i.e. if one of your relatives dies during his journey and you, the family and relatives of the deceased, are sad and grieved for him.


106 g For judgment and testimony, and this should be after the prayer, so that this will be when people gather, in order to be ashamed of them and tell the truth.


106 h And you think they betrayed; so they should say:


106 i And we would then deserve the punishment.






107 j i.e. the two Christians.


107 k Because of taking the vessel and some other things, and because of their false oaths.


107 l i.e. instead of the two witnesses who belong to a religion other than yours.


107 m i.e. the heirs of the deceased. The two most worthy of the deceased, because they are of his relatives, shall give testimony and shall swear.


107 n That is because the two Christians claimed they bought the vessel from the deceased, while the heirs denied it; so it became obligatory that "the plaintiff has to give evidence, and the denier has to swear."


107 o To the betrayal of the two Christians.


107 p And our oath is truer than their oath.


Sheikh Tebrissi said in his book (Majma'a Al-Bayan) : "This aya and the preceding one are among the most difficult ayat of the Quran in language, meaning and statement."

That was because he could not explain its meaning and implication.





108 q Statement of shifting the oath to the heirs.


108 r Those recommended with the ‘will’ of the deceased.


108 s i.e. to give correct witness, and that neither will they conceal any part of it nor add anything to it, because they fear of the swearing.


108 t Those recommended by the will of the deceased.