Soora 59


[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)


The meaning


More explanation

[2] 1. [All birds] that [fly] in the [gaseous] heavens and [all beasts] that [move] on the earth glorify God, and He is the All-Mighty [in His kingdom], the Most Wise [in His creation.]


[3] 2. It is [God] Who expelled those people of the Scripture who disbelieved a, out of their habitation b, [so that] as soon as they met together [to discuss the matter of the besiege; they agreed to leave their village near Medina c.]

You [believers] did not imagine that they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would defend them against Godd.

But God brought [the army of the Muslims] against them from where they did not expect, and He cast terror into their hearts; so that they started to destroy their houses with their own hands and with the hands of the believers e.

Therefore understand this lesson, you [men] who have insight! f


[4] 3. Had God not decreed the exile for them, He would otherwise have chastised them [with slaying, imprisoning and captivity] g in the life of the World; and there awaits them in the Next Life the chastisement of the Fire.


[5] 4. Such [exiling from their habitation] was [their reward] because they opposed [the command of] God and [the command of] His messenger.

[Then God be glorified threatened those who follow their example in opposing the command of God and His messenger, so He said:]

And whosoever opposes [the command of] God, then surely God will severely punish them [in the Next Life, on account of their opposing the command of their Lord.]








2 a He means the Jewish tribe of Beni Nadhier; whom the Prophet banished from their habitations, because they allied with the associaters [of Mecca] and made covenant with them to fight the Prophet; so God set the Muslims on them, who besieged them in their habitation, until they agreed to leave their habitation and property and to escape with their lives and go to Levant [: Syria and neighboring countries.]

2 b Situated outside the city of Yathrib [or Medina] in a village called Buwayrah.

2 c And to depart to Levant and other countries.

2 d i.e. they thought that none can expel them out of their fortresses.

2 e The Jews destroyed their homes lest the Muslims might make use of them afterwards; while the believers destroyed them before the surrendering of the Jews and before they left their homes: in order to go into them from such sites.

2 f So, as have you yourselves seen such events with your own sight, never oppose the messenger of God.







3 g As did He deal, after them, with the Jewish tribe of Bani Quraizah.



[When the Prophet besieged the tribe of Beni Nadhier, he ordered the cutting of some palm-trees outside the wall [of the city] in order to open a way to reach to the wall.

So the Jews said: Mohammed, you forbade the indecency, then whats the matter with you today that you cut off the palm trees?

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[6] 5. Whatever young palm-tree you [believers] did cut down or that you left standing upon their roots a, was by God's leave b and to disgrace the disobedient [Jews c.]


[7] 6. And whatever Fayá [: spoils of war d] God has given to His messenger from them e, for which you troubled neither horse nor riding-camel [to reach the village of Beni Nadhierf.]

But God gives power to His messengers over whomsoever He will g; God is Most Able to do all things.


[8] 7. Whatsoever Fayá h God gives to His messenger from [the property of disbelievers among] people of the cities, [it should be divided into portions]:

for God i, His messenger j, the near kinsman k [of the messenger at his time l], and for orphans [of Muslims] m, the needy n [among Muslims] and the 'traveler who is in need' o.

In order that the [Fayá] may not circulate [in the future] exclusively among those of you who are rich.

So take what [money] the messenger assigns to you [eventhough it be little], and desist from [taking] that which he forbids you from.

And ward off [opposing the command of] God; for surely God will severely punish [those who disobey Him.]


[Then God be glorified explained who, has the right of preference in the Fayá, out of those mentioned in the previous aya, and He said:]

[9] 8. [The Fayá is preferably] for the poor emigrants p, whom [the associaters of Mecca] expelled from their homes and [took possession of] their property.They sought [by their emigration] after bounty from God and [His] good pleasure, and helping God and His messenger; such are the truthful q.


[Then God be glorified mentioned the Helpers, or the believers among the people of Medina who helped the Prophet, and He said:]

[10] 9. And those [Helpers] who prepared the home [in Medina] ready [for the prophet], and believed [in him] before [the arrival of the Emigrants to Medina];

they love those [believers] who come to them as Emigrants r, and bear not in their breasts any rancor for whatever [money s, the Emigrants] have [preferably] been given, and prefer [the Emigrants] above themselves, eventhough they suffer much povertyt.

Surely, whoso is guarded against the evil decreed for him by whatever little [food he may give to his guest]; such, indeed, will prosper [in the Next Life.]u


[11] 10. And those who came [to the Islam and converted] after the [Emigrants and Helpers] say: "Our Lord, forgive us and our brethren who were before us in the faith, and place not in our hearts any rancor towards the believers. Our Lord, surely You are Most Kind [and] Most Merciful.










5 a i.e. so that you did not cut off.

5 b i.e. God permitted them that, so that they would be sad for their palm-trees.

5 c By driving them out of their habitation.





6 d Which the Muslims took from the Jews after exiling them from their habitation.

6 e i.e. from the Jewish tribe of Beni Nadhier. It was by Gods leave.

6 f The meaning: You did not travel to the village of Beni Nadhier with difficulty and reach to it with tiredness, but you walked to it on foot, due to the short distance between you and their habitation, and so you gained their property without suffering.

6 g Of those ungrateful to His bounties, and they expel them out of their habitation and take their property, because they are ungrateful of bounties, breaker of covenants and opponents of Gods messengers and prophets.





7 h i.e. spoils of war obtained without striving.

7 i A portion to which He commands you as He pleases.

7 j A portion given to him by God as a possession.

7 k Also a portion.

7 l Bani Hashim, for the believers among them.

7 m A portion.

7 n Also a portion.

7 o A portion also. So these are six portions.















8 p Who emigrated from Mecca to Medina.

8 q With their saying: "We are poor"; so give them more out of the Fayá.











9 r For they were kind to the Emigrants, lodged them in their houses and shared them in their wealth.

9 s Of Beni Nadhier.

9 t And need for the money.

9 u It is narrated in the book of Prophetic traditions of Al-Bukhary, a narration by Abu-Hurayrah, that a starving man came to the Prophet, and the Prophet sent to his wives asking them about some food, but he did not find; so he said: Is there any man to entertain this guest? So a man out of the Helpers stood and said: I do, Gods messenger!

And he took the guest to his home; his wife said: I only have the food of our children.

He said: Let the children sleep, then give food to him then stand as if you adjust the lantern, but put it out, so that he may eat alone, for he is the guest of Gods messenger.

Therefore, she did that.

Next morning, he came to Gods messenger salam to him who said: God is pleased with you; for it is revealed, concerning you, the aya which means: (Surely, whoso is guarded against the evil decreed for him by whatever little [food he may give to his guest]; such, indeed, will prosper [in the Next Life.])



[12] 11. Have you [Mohammed] not considered those who acted the hypocrites a, saying to their brothers b [: the Jewish tribe of Beni Nadhier] c among the people of the Scripture:

"If you are expelled, we will go forth [helping] you [in your travel], and will never obey anyone in [abandoning] your [help.]

If you are fought against [by Mohammed and his companions], we will aid you [by giving you weapon and food.]"

But God bears witness that the [hypocrites] are liars [in their words.]


[13] 12. If [the Jews] are evicted [from their habitation], the [hypocrites] will not go forth with them, and if the [Jews] are fought [by the believers], the [hypocrites] will not help the [Jews, neither by defending nor by fighting.]

[Moreover], even if the [hypocrites] help [the Jews with some weapond], the [Jews] will turn their backs [fleeing] away, [if they fight]; then they will never be granted victory e.


[Then God be glorified told about the extreme terror which He inserted in the hearts of Jews, and He said:]

[14] 13. The [Jews] fear of you, [believers], more than they fear of God; for they understand not.


[15] 14. The [Jews] will not fight against you [Muslims] in a body f, unless [their fighting be] inside cities fortified [with walls and high buildings]g, or from behind walls h.

Strong [indeed] is their violence among themselves i; you deem them unified [in their opinions] whereas their hearts are disunited [in opinions]; that is because they are [a people who] understand not. j


[16] 15. Like those [idolaters and associaters among the Arab] who a short time k before them [were killed in the Battle of Badr, and they] suffered the evil consequences of their deeds l.

Moreover a painful chastisement will be for them [in the Next Life.]


[Then God be glorified gave a parable about those hypocrites who covenanted the Jews to help and support them, but they broke their covenants, and He said:]

[17] 16. Like the devil m when he said to man n: "Be ungrateful [to the grace of your Lord! o]"

Then when [Balaam] became a disbeliever p, [King Balaq] said: "I am quit of you q; for surely I fear [that] God, the Lord of the worlds [may punish me r.]"


[18] 17. So their end is, both [the king and Balaam] are in the Fire, therein dwelling forever; such is the rewarding of wrong-doers s.


11 a They were Abdullah son of Ubay, the chief of hypocrites in the city of Yathrib (or Medina), and his companions.

11 b In hypocrisy and disbelief.

11 c This was before the banishment of Beni Nadhier out of their habitation.












12 d The Jews, in fact, were not in need of weapon.

12 e Whether they fought alone, or the hypocrites fought along with them; in both conditions they shall be defeated by Gods will.




















14 f If You and they meet altogether in one battle field.

14 g The Arabic word in the aya is mentioned in another aya in the Quran 21: 80 about the story of Prophet David:

(And We taught him the making of coats [of mail] for you, to protect you from your violence); i.e. to protect you from the killing at the time of war.

14 h And they may then throw arrows towards you.

14 i i.e. their fighting of each other is severe.

Read their story in the Torah, Book of Judges, chapter 20; and so you will know how their might was so severe against each other.

14 j Moreover they are stubborn; and their likeness in stubbornness is like




15 k That is because the Battle of Badr was followed by the Battle of Uhud, and the latter was shortly followed by the exiling of Beni Nadhier.

Therefore, the Battle of Badr was a short time before the exiling of Beni Nadhier.

15 l i.e. they suffered the chastisement of the killing and the disgrace of the defeat and captivity, on account of their ignorance and stubbornness; because they did not believe together with those who believed, neither did they convert together with those who converted.

The same meaning of the Arabic word in the aya has also been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 5: 98.




16 m i.e. their likeness is like Balaq son of Zippor, the king of Moab, who was a human devil; he deceived Balaam son of Beor, the worshipper.

16 n Balaam son of Beor, the worshipper.

16 o And pray God for destruction of the Children of Israel.

It means: He invited him to an act including the disobedience of Gods command, then when he obeyed the command of the king and disobeyed the command of God, he became a disbeliever and ungrateful.

16 p And the Children of Israel came to fight them and defeat them, Balaam came to the king seeking about his protection and to rescue him from the Children of Israel and save him from the killing.

16 q Because you did not avert the might of the Children of Israel from me, neither did you guide me to the right and to the submission to them and to make peace with them; so that we might have been safe of the killing in the life of the World and from the punishment in the Next Life, had you guided me to the monotheism and to worship God alone.

16 r On account of what I did.

Afterwards, the Children of Israel captured and killed them both.




17 s Who wrong and deceive people with their lies and deception, and who lead them to destruction.



[19] 18. O you who believe, ward off God's [disobedience]; let every soul consider what [good work] it has forwarded for tomorrow [following deatha.]

And ward off [the disobedience of the messenger of] God; [for] God is Most Aware of [all] that you do. b


[20] 19. And be not as those [Jews] who forgot God [and they disobeyed Him] c, so He caused them to forget themselves d; such are the disobedient [people.]


[21] 20. Not equal are the dwellers of the Hellfire and the dwellers of Paradise [in the way of life and prosperity]; the dwellers of Paradise are the winners [in the Next Life.]

[Then God be glorified gave a parable about Jews and their hard hearts, and He said:]

[22] 21. Had We sent down this Quran on a [rocky] mountain e, surely you would have seen it humble itself and cleave asunder for fear of God, [but the hearts of these Jews are harder than rocks f.]

Such are the parables which We propound to men that they may reflect [in consequences.] g


[23] 22. He is God; there is no god [to be worshipped in the entire universe] but He [alone.]

He is the Knower of the unseen h and the vsiblei.

He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


[24] 23. He is God; there is no god but He:

the Sovereign,

the All-Sacred [: Sanctified by His angels],

the All-Intact j,

the Believer [in His might k],

the Dominant [over His servants and all His creatures l],

the Almighty [in His kingdom] m,

the Compeller [of disbelievers and associaters n to the Fire],

the Most Proud o [above His servants.]

Glorified be God above all [His creatures] that they associate [and worship besides Him.]


[25] 24. He is God;

the Creator [of all creatures],

the Savior [of His devoted servants p],

the Designer [of bodies inside wombs.]

His are the Names Most Beautiful.

All [birds and beasts] that are in the heavens and the earth q glorify Him;

He is the All-Mighty, the Most Wise.


18 a It means: for the day of its going from the life of the World to the Next Life; because the death appointment is imminent; it may be he will die tomorrow.

18 b So, following your death, He will take you to account about your deeds.








19 c i.e. do not be like Jews who forgot God and worshipped others, and associated in His worship the Baal, Astaroth and the star Sirius.

19 d i.e. they neglected themselves, on account of their extreme distress and sadness.

This in fact is a parable of one suffering from extremely hard circumstances, distress and sadness due to afflictions of the time; so it is said: He forgot about himself because of his worries.








21 e i.e. on one of rocky mountains, and We rehearsed on it these admonitions and warnings.

21 f Because their hearts do not yield to Gods remembrance neither they submit to His messenger.

21 g A similar aya to this one, is His saying be glorified in the Quran 2: 74, which means:

(Then your hearts became hardened afterwards and were like rocks, or even yet harder.

For indeed there are [some] rocks out of which rivers gush, and indeed there are [some] rocks which crack so that water comes out of them. And there are [some] rocks which fall down for the fear of God.

God is never unaware of [all] that you do [ O Jews.])




22 h Or the unknown to you.

22 i Or the known to you.








23 j Being Safe of the evil of His creatures, by His highness and loftiness away from them.

23 k And He can do anything.

23 l It means: He has the authority and complete control over them.

23 m And His angels revere and love Him on account of His surplus on them.

23 n And He abases them.

23 o So that He disdains the matter and to come down to it or to sit with the material beings or to talk with them unless from behind a screen.



















24 p From afflictions [in the life of the World] and from the chastisement of the Next Life.

The Arabic word in the aya has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 2: 54.

24 q It means: all birds flying and beasts moving in the planets including the earth do glorify God.


By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 59 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)


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