Soora 9

 

The meaning

 

More explanation

[The Prophet salam to him made a treaty with the associaters (or idolaters) among the people of Mecca for peace between the two parties, and they should not kill each other and should not hurt the believers neither to plunder their property nor to assist anyone to fight them.

A period of time later, the associaters betrayed their covenant with the Prophet, except a party of them.
Therefore, Am'r son of Salem Al-Khuza'e (whose tribe were in alliance with the Prophet included in the treaty) went to Medina and came to God's messenger. And that was a reason for the conquer of Mecca; so he stood before the Prophet while he was in the mosque among the people: and said a poetry which denote that:
"The Quraish tribesmen have broken your covenant and attacked us, and he demanded of him to take an action."

Therefore, this soora (or chapter) was revealed about the associaters (or the idolaters) who betrayed the covenant and broke the pact.

 

The reason that there is no (In the name of God: Most Gracious, Most Merciful) at the start of this soora, as is it in the other sooras or chapters of the Quran, because the associaters are not included in the grace and mercy of God.]

[1] 1. Freedom from obligation a [is proclaimed] by God and His messenger concerning those associaters with whom you [Muslims] have made a treaty b.

 

[Then God be glorified gave them a four months respite, in order to contemplate the Quran and ponder its revelations and to reason their minds and make tourism throughout the earth to see the ruins of the ancient peoples who denied the apostles, and how God ruined and destroyed them, so that they should not be like them.
Then afterwards, either will they convert, or will be killed if they keep up to their disbelief and blasphemy; so He be glorified said:]

[2] 2. Therefore, journey freely in the land for four months [being secured; but afterwards you should either convert and become Muslims, or else you will be killed.]

And know that you cannot frustrate [the will of] God c, and that God will degrade [and abase] the unbelievers.

 

[3] 3. And an announcement by God and His messenger to [all] people d e on the day of the greater pilgrimage [in Zul-Hijja lunar month] f

g that God is Free from obligation [of any covenant or treaty] with the associaters as is His messenger h.

So if you repent it will be best for you i ; but if you turn away [from the Islam and do not believe], know then that you cannot frustrate Godj,

and foretell a painful doom to the unbelievers [in the Next Life.]

 

[Then God be glorified made an exception: those who did not betray the covenant with the Prophet and the Muslims, so He be exalted said:]

[4] 4. Excepting those associaters with whom you [Muslims] made covenant, then they failed you naught [of the conditions of the covenant k], neither lent support to any man [in fighting] against you. Fulfill with them, then, your covenant till their term [: the time agreed upon with them];

surely God loves those who avoid [breaking the covenant.]

 

[5] 5. Then, when the inviolable months have elapsed l,

slay the associaters 'wherever and whenever' you find them,

take them [captives],

besiege them,

and lie in wait for them at every place of ambushm.

But if they repent n and establish prayers o and pay the [prescribed] Zakat [alms], then set them free [and don't fight them.]

For God is Most Forgiving [to the repenting], Most Merciful [to the obedient.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 a To the treaty and covenant.

1 b It means: Muslims, quit yourselves of any treaty or covenant that was between you and the associaters, for God and His messengers are clear of these associaters, because they broke their covenant.

 

 

 

2 c Whatever your large number may be, and whatever much weapon you may have.

 

3 d i.e. whether they be associaters or Muslims; to know that the pacts were annulled between the Muslims and the associaters.

3 e The day on which He gave them the respite was the day of the greater pilgrimage.

3 f i.e. which yields more recompense, which is in the lunar month of Zul-Hijja, when the stand will be on the mountain of Arafat on Friday.

While the lesser pilgrimage is the Umrah at any other time.

3 g i.e. the announcement is that God is Free from obligation concerning the covenant with the associaters.

3 h Also free from obligation.

3 i Than keeping up with the association.

3 j i.e. you cannot prevent Him from chastising you, neither can you escape from His might.

 

4 k i.e. they did not betray the covenant with you.

 

5 l Which are the four months of the respite which We have given to them.

5 m i.e. at every road on which they walk, and on every height where you supervise and watch them.
It means: Whatever you can do to them, concerning their killing, arresting, besieging, imprisoning and watching, then do all that to them; in order that they may forsake the religion of the association and idolatry and then they may convert.

5 n From the association and the idol-worship, and then they believe in God and His messenger.

5 o As you do it.

 

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[6] 6. And if anyone of the associaters asks your protection, then protect him so that he may hear the words of God [in the Quran a],

and afterwards convey him to his place of safetyb.

That is because they are men without knowledge [about the truth c.]

 

[7] 7. How should the associaters [who break their covenant] have any treaty with God and His messenger?

Excepting those with whom you made a treaty in the Inviolable Mosque [at Mecca; because they have not broken their treaty with you.]

So long as these keep [their treaty] with you, do you [Muslims] keep up [your treaty] with them; for God loves those who avoid [breaking the covenant.]

 

[8] 8. How is that [you keep up any treaty with those who break it?]

Whereas if they overcome you, they regard not any covenant nor any fulfillment [of pact].

They please you with [words of] their mouthsd, but their hearts are averse e; and most of them are indecent f.

 

6 a It means: if anyone of the associaters whom I commanded you to fight, asks security from being killed, after the four months, in order to hear your call, inquire about it and hear the ayat of the Quran; then secure him, explain to him and give respite to him in order to hear the word of God, that he may convert and believe.

6 b It means: If he embraces the Islam religion, he will have the goodness of both the life of the World and the Next Life.

But if he does not embrace the Islam religion, then don't kill him with perfidy, but take him to his people habitation where he is safe.

6 c Because they blindly follow their fathers.

 

 

 

 

8 d With smooth words and showing love towards you.

8 e Concealing hatred, perfidy and covenant breaking.

8 f With no good manners.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to dispraise the leaders of the associaters:]

[9] 9. They have exchanged Gods revelations for a little gain a, and barred [people] from His way b They [are wrong-doers, and] evil, indeed, are their deeds.

 

[10] 10. Observing not any covenant nor any fulfillment [of pact] towards any believer c; they are the transgressors [on believers and weak people.]

 

[11] 11. But if they [: these chiefs and leaders] repent and perform prayers and pay the Zakat [alms], then [they are] your brothers in religion.

We [will, in the future,] expound d the revelations to a people having knowledge.

 

[12] 12. Yet if these [chiefs] violate their covenants, to which they swore, even after ratifying them, and insult your religion, fight the chiefs of unbelief e;

for they are [associaters and hypocrites] not pledged to covenants f; that [by fighting them] they may refrain [from hurting you and insulting your religion g.]

 

[13] 13. [Believers,] will you not fight a people who violated their covenants [to which they swore to you], and intended to take the messenger out [of his home, as for to kill him], and it is they who began [killing] you the first time h?

Are you afraid of them [because they are chiefs and leaders]?

God is More Worthy that you should fear, if you truly are believers.

 

[14] 14. Fight them [: the associaters], and God will chastise them by your hands i, and will degrade them j, give you victory over them [in the war] and allay the breasts of a folk of believers.

 

[15] 15. And [He will] remove the rage of their hearts k, and [that] God may turn towards whom He pleases [to be a martyr] l;

God is All-Knowing [about whoever will attain martyrdom], All-Wise [in His acts so He commanded you to fight the associaters.]

 

9 a i.e. they have chosen to deny the revelations of God in order to gain a little gain, which is the leadership and the money that they have gained by means of the leadership; and it is in fact little in relation to the Next Life.

9 b i.e. from His religion and way which leads its followers to Paradise.

 

10 c This has been interpreted in the interpretation of the previous aya 9: 8.

 

 

11 d i.e. in the future, We shall explain the Quran revelations in details.

[In fact,] I have now explained the [revelations] in details.

 

 

12 e Like Al-Harith son of Hisham, and Abu Sufyan son of Harb and the other chiefs of Quraish.

12 f They do not observe the covenant and the swear.

12 g If you fight them.

 

 

13 h So the first one whom they killed was Yasser and his wife Somayya; and that was in Mecca before the Muslims emigrated to Medina.

 

 

 

 

14 i With smiting [by the sword], thrusting [by the spear and arrow] and killing.

14 j With captivity.

 

 

15 k i.e. the rage of the believers by killing the disbelievers who killed their believing brothers.

15 l So this is good news of admission into Paradise.
Therefore, anyone killed as a martyr, God will turn to him, accept his repentance and wipe out his sins.

The indication of this is in the story of the Israelites who worshipped the calf: God be glorified said expressing the words of Moses, in the Quran 2: 54, which means:

(And kill [the calf-worshippers amongst] yourselves; that will be best for you with your Savior."

Then He turned towards you [in forgiveness.] )

So when they were killed, God turned towards them and accepted their repentance.

 

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[16] 16. a Or do you [Muslims] suppose you will be left [at home] when God has not yet known those of you who struggle b, [and those who] take apart from God and His messenger and the believers none [as intimate friends] to engage with [in their parties or programs?] c

God is Most Aware of what you do.

 

16 a It implies: Do you deem you will be rewarded without working, or do you think you will be admitted into Paradise without struggling in the way of God

16 b Those whom He will admit into Paradise.

16 c It means: those who do not take friends and intimates with whom they engage in their programs and parties, other than only God's messenger and those who believe in him; so those will be rewarded and will go to Paradise.

So the is the group with whom he has intimate friendship, social relation and he likes them.

There is another aya similar to this one in the Quran 3: 142, which means:

([Do you, believers, think that you will be rewarded without any work] or do you suppose you will enter Paradise without God knows which of you fight hard [in His cause], and [also] He knows which is steadfast [in fighting?])

 

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[Then God be glorified commanded the Muslims to prevent the associaters (and idolaters) to stand in the Inviolable Mosque for prayers and for performing their religious rites in it:]

[17] 17. It is not for the associaters to attend a the places of God's worship [: the mosques],

testifying against themselves to the disbelief b.

As for such [disbelievers], their deeds are vain c, and in the Fire they will abide [on Doomsday.]

 

[18] 18. None shall attend God's places of worship [with prayers and devotion] but only he:

who believes in God [One without any associate] and the Last Day [: the Doomsday],

and establishes the prayers,

and pays the Zakat [alms],

and fears none [of peers and associates] but [fears] God alone;

it may be that those will be among the guided [to the way of Paradise.]

 

17 a Attending the mosque is by the coming of people into it for worship, performing the religious rites like the prayers, the supplication and asking from God, the glorification and reciting the Quran.

17 b i.e. some of them testified to them that they were disbelievers, but they did not listen to their words nor did they work according to their command.


Those were some of the Quraish tribesmen, before the Prophet, who prevented them from worshipping the idols and declared to them that they were disbelievers.


Afterwards, Mohammed testified against them, and he was one of their Quraish tribesmen.

17 c i.e. they will not be rewarded, but will be punished according to their deeds.

 

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[When the associaters (of Mecca) heard the previous aya 9: 17 which means: (testifying against themselves to the disbelief), they said: "How can the disbelief be ascribed to us, while we serve the mosque, give water to the pilgrim, and relieve the distressed?"

Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[19] 19. Do you consider the giving of water to pilgrims and the care about the Inviolable Mosque [at Mecca] the same as [the faith of] one who believes in God [alone, without any associate] and [believes in] the Last Day [: Doomsday] and struggles [together with God's messenger] in the way of God?

Not equal are they before God; and God guides not [to the way of the truth] the people of the wrong-doers.

 

 

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[Then God be glorified started to describe the believers, so He said:]

[20] 20. Those, who have believed [in God and His messenger] and emigrated [with him to Medina] and struggled in the way of God with their property and their lives, are of a greater rank [than others] before God; and these are the winners [of the prosperity in Paradise.]

 

[21] 21. Their Lord gives them good tidings a of mercy from Him and good pleasure [in the Next Life] and Gardens [will be for them] wherein they will be in lasting prosperity.

 

[22] 22. Therein to dwell forever and ever b; surely with God is a mighty c recompense.

 

 

 

 

 

21 a By the tongue of their prophets.

 

 

 

22 b from which they will not depart.

22 c i.e. much recompense.

 

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[The Prophet ordered his companions to go forth to struggle, i.e. to the 'Jihad', but some of the hypocrites started to forbid their sons and brothers from going forth, because they feared the killing; therefore, His saying be glorified in this aya was revealed:]

[23] 23. Believers, take not your fathers and brothers for friends [to disobey God's messenger], if they prefer the disbelief to the belief a.

And whoso of you takes them for friends b, such are the wrongdoers.

 

[24] 24. Say [Mohammed to them]: "If your fathers, your sons, your brothers c, your wives, your clan, the possessions that you have gained, the commerce you fear may slacken, and the dwellings which you love

if these are dearer to you than [the obedience to] God and His messenger d and [dearer to you than] to struggle in His way e;

then wait till [death f, when] God will bring His 'amr' [: the angels of death] g; God guides not the disobedient people [who forbade you from struggling.]"

 

23 a i.e. don't listen to their words and forsake the word of God's messenger; because anyone disobeys the messenger then he is a disbeliever.

23 b And listens to their words and disobeys God's messenger

 

24 c Who forbade you from the struggling (: the Jihad).

24 d So that you forsake the struggling (: the Jihad) for such things.

24 e It means: if you want to remain in [the life of] the World for such things that you love, and because you fear of the killing.

24 f i.e. then wait for death, because anyone who is not killed, will at last die, and the World is not a home of everlasting.

In addition, that which you like cannot remain with you forever, but in fact the World is a home of transmission and disappearance; so wait until God will send his angels of death

24 g It means: Wait until God will send the death angels to seize your ghosts, and then you will have remorse about that which you missed.

 

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[25] 25. God did help you in many [battle-]fields a, and on the day [of the Battle] of Hunayn b when your multitude was pleasing to you, but it availed you naught c; the land for all that it is wide was strait for youd, and you turned your backs in flight [away from the Prophet.]

 

[26] 26. Then God brought down His 'assuredness' on His apostle [Mohammed] and on the believers;

and brought down [from heaven] hosts [of angels to persuade the believers to fight and be steadfast] whom you did not see [O Muslims] e,

and He chastised the unbelievers [at your hands];

such [slaying, captivity and plundering that befell them] is the reward of unbelievers.

 

[27] 27. Then God, even after that [slaying and captivity that befell the disbelievers] may turn towards whom f He will;

God is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful. g

 

25 a It means: Why do you abstain from the Jihad (or the struggling) while God helped you in many battle fields and you were not killed there? Moreover, the triumph is up to God, not because of the large number.

25 b You were more numerous than your enemy was.

25 c In defeating your enemy.

25 d According to the fear that overwhelmed you. This is a parable of one being in extreme distress.

 

26 e And as such did He help you with victory against your enemy.

 

27 f On the disbelievers who afterwards converted, and on the believers who ran away.

27 g The story [of the Battle of Hunayn]

Commentators and historians said that after God's messenger conquered Mecca, he then departed from it, setting forth to Hunayn, to fight the tribes of Hawazin and Thaqief, in the last days of the lunar month of Ramadan and the start of the Shawwal lunar month, in the year 8 A. H. (after Hijra or Emigration.)

The chiefs of Hawazin gathered around Malik son of Awf al-Nasri; they took, with them to the battle field, their property, women and children, and they settled at Autas.
Durayd son of Simmah was with them; he was the chief of Jash'aam; he was an elderly man, and was about blind because of his elderly.

He said: "Where are you now?"

They said: "At Autas."

He said: "An excellent field for horses of the cavalry. But what is all such sounds of camels, donkeys, oxen and sheep in addition to the crying of children!?"

They said: "Malik, son of Awf, drove with the people their children, property and women; in order that every man will fight defending his family and property."
Durayd said: "He is only a shepherd of sheep; I swear to it by the Lord of the Ka'aba of Mecca!"

Then he said: "Bring to me Malik!"

And when he came to him, he said to him: "Malik, you are now the chief of your people, and this day is a serious day with serious consequences; so return back your families to their homes, and fight the men on the backs of horses; because none will avail you but only a man with his sword and horse; so if you overcome, those behind you will follow you; but if you lose, then you will preserve the honor of your families."

Malik said to him: "You have become old, and you have lost your knowledge and wisdom."

The messenger of God knotted his major flag and handed it to Ali son of Abu Talib; he also ordered everyone entered Mecca with a flag to take it with him.
Then he marched, after staying at Mecca for fifteen days.
He also borrowed one hundred shields from Safwan son of Umayya.

Safwan said to him: "Is it in a way of debt or taking by force?"
The prophet said: "A debt that will surely be repaid."

So Safwan lent him a hundred shields and went forth with him.

And there came out with him also two thousand men out of those converted following the conquest of Mecca.

The prophet salam to him entered Mecca accompanied by ten thousand men, and went out of it accompanied by twelve thousand men.

God's messenger then sent one of his companions to Malik, son of Awf, while the latter said to his people: "Let everyone of you put his family and property behind his back, break the sheaths of your swords, and lay in ambush in the pits of this valley, and behind its trees; so when it is early morning, then attack them all of a sudden; for Mohammed have not faced yet anyone skilled in war and fighting!"

God's messenger led people in the dawn prayer, then at early morning they went down the valley of Hunayn, when all of a sudden the hosts of Hawazin attacked them from every side, so Bani Sulaym, who were at the forefront, ran away as did those behind them. Therefore, God left them alone to their enemy: on account of their trust in their multitude [rather than trust in God alone.]

Ali, holding the flag, stood fighting them together with few other men, and those fleeing passed by God's messenger while they were running away.
Abbas son of abd-Muttalib held the bridle of the mule of God's messenger.

Fadhl was to his right, and Abu Sufyan son of Harith son of Muttalib was to his left, in addition to Nawfal son of Harith, Rabi'aa son of Harith among nine men of the prophet's clan of Bani Hashim; the tenth one of them was Ayman son of Um Ayman who was later killed on that day.

When God's messenger saw the fleeing of people from him, he said to Abbas who had an orotund sound: "Climb to this hill and cry out:

"O 'Emigrants' and 'Helpers'! O people of the second chapter of the Quran, O men who pledge allegiance under the tree! Where do you flee to? This is God's messenger, standing here!"

So when the Muslims heard the voice of Abbas, they came back and said: "Compliance! Compliance!"

The Helpers [: people of Medina] in particular fought the associaters until God's messenger said: "Now the fighting has become violent; I am the prophet in truth and I don't lie; I am the son of abd-Muttalib!"

So the victory came from God be glorified and the Hawazin tribe was utterly defeated, and they scattered in every side, while the Muslims pursued after them. Malik son of Awf went and lodged in the fort of the Ta'if.

About one hundred of their men were killed, and the Muslims seized their property and women. God's messenger commanded the captives and property to be taken to Ja'arana, and assigned Badil son of Warqa al Khuza'ee on the spoils.

And he salam to him pursued after the enemy and approached the Ta'if seeking after Malik son of Awf, and besieged the people of Ta'if for the rest of the month, then when the month of Zul Qi'ada came, he went away to Ja'arana and distributed the spoils of Hunayn and Autas. He had six thousands of the children and women of Hawazin, in addition to a large number of camels and sheep.

Then he commanded a crier to cry out: "No sexual contact should be done with the pregnant women till they give birth; neither with the non-pregnant until it becomes clear by menstruation that they are not pregnant."

Then the envoys of Hawazin came to Ja'arana surrendering to God's messenger; their orator stood and said:

"God's messenger, the captive women include your aunts and those who took care about you when you were child; and had it been that the son of Abu Samra or No'man son of Munzir had captured us, and had afflicted us with something similar to that visited us from you, we would have hoped their kindness and generosity; and you in fact are more noble and generous!"

Then he said some poetry to ask the kindness of the prophet.

So the Prophet salam to him said: "Which of the two things you prefer, the captives or the property?"

They said: "God's messenger, the honor of our families is that certainly we prefer."

The messenger of God said: "As regards to my clan Bani Hashim, I return back to you the captives that they have.

And I shall speak to the rest of Muslims and intercede to them for your behalf, so speak you also to them and show to them your true conversion to the Islam."

Then after the Prophet prayed the noon-time prayer, they stood and spoke; and the Prophet said: "I return the share of Bani Hashim, and all that is by my hand, to them; so whoso likes to give his share without being forced to do so, then let him give [his share of the captives], and whoso dislikes to give then let him take the ransom, and I vouchsafe their ransom."

Then the people gave the captives, except few of them asked for the ransom.

God's messenger then sent to Malik son of Awf, and said: "If you come surrendering to me and converting to the Islam, I shall return to you your family and your property, in addition to that I shall give you one hundred camels."

So he came out of the Ta'if, and the Prophet returned to him his family and property, and gave him one hundred camels, and assigned him the governor of his people who converted.

 

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[28] 28. Believers, the associaters are indeed unclean; so let them not approach the Inviolable Mosque [for pilgrimage] after this year of theirs [in which this soora was revealed.]

If you fear the need [and poverty] a, God shall enrich you b out of His bounty, if He will; for God is All-Knowing c, Most Wise d.

 

28 a They became afraid lest their trade and business may decline, according to preventing the associaters and idolaters from entering into the Inviolable Mosque.

28 b By another way.

28 c About the advantages of His servants.

28 d With His commands.

 

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[When God be glorified ordered to fight the associaters among the Arab and to prevent them from entering the Inviolable Mosque, He followed that by commanding that the Jizya tribute should be taken from the associaters and disbelievers among the people of the Bible: Jews and Christians; because they are so many sects: some of them: monotheists devoted to God alone, and some of them: associaters and others: disbelievers; so in case they abstain from giving the Jizya tribute, then fight them. This is in His saying in this aya:]

[29] 29. Fight against those given the Scripture; such of them as believe not in God [alone] a nor the Last Day [: the Doomsday], nor do they forbid what God and His messenger [Moses b forbade in their Book: the Torah], nor do they follow the religion of truth [: the monotheism c], until they pay the 'Jizia' tribute [submissive] to [your] hand [and power], and they have been humbled.

 

 

 

 

29 a But they claim about the Trinity, or assign a son to Him.

29 b son of Amram.

29 c With which God sent all the prophets: the religion of monotheism and the exclusive devotion to God alone.

 

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[Then God be glorified explained about some kinds of the association with God, committed by Jews and Christians, so He said:]

[30] 30. The [past] Jews said a: "Ezra is the son of God" b,

and [most of] Christians say: "The Christ is the son of God!" That is [merely untrue] words uttered by their mouthsc;

[in this respect] they but simulate what the disbelievers [among the pagan Arab d] used to say, [and that was] before [the Arab e];

may God be against them! How they do lie!

 

[31] 31. They have taken their rabbis f and their monks and the Christ g, Mary's son, as lords apart from God, when they were commanded [in the Torah, Psalms and Gospel] to serve but only One God; there is no god but He; glory be to Him above all [material creatures] that they associate [with Him.]

 

30 a In the time of Ezra.

30 b They said this, when Ezra wrote for them the Torah [The Torah of Ezra]; he left every word (God) as an empty space, then he wrote it [as an invisible writing] with the silver nitrate solution, and said to them: "God will write that space with the pen of His might, forty days later; so leave it exposed to the sun."
Then when they saw it written as Ezra had said to them, at that time they said: Ezra is the son of God, for God loved him and wrote for him in his Torah.

30 c No heavenly book told them about such a thing, neither did any apostle tell them, nor have they any evidence to it.

30 d i.e. the associaters (or idolaters) among the Arab who said: the angels are the daughters of God; therefore, Christians and ancient Jews ascribed a son to God, and the pagan Arab ascribed daughters to Him.

30 e Jews and Christians had claimed about the son of God, before did the Arab claim that the angels are the daughters of God.

While their belief about the crucifixion: Christians acquired it from Indians who followed the doctrine of Krishna that: the forgiveness of sins is attained through torturing the body; and as such do Christians say that the Christ was crucified and by his crucifixion we are forgiven our sins.

 

31 f i.e. Jews have taken their rabbis as masters and lords, and Christians have taken their monks and clergies as masters and lords whom they glorified and sanctified, apart from God.

31 g They have taken him as god apart from God Almighty.

 

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[32] 32. They [: Jews, Christians and pagan Arabs] desire to put out the light [: the Quran] of God, with [the falsehood words of] their mouths a, but God insists to perfect His light [to Muslims, by means of Mohammed] though the unbelievers are averse.

 

[33] 33. It is He [: God] Who has sent His messenger [: Mohammed] with the guidance [: included in the Quran b] and [the Islam:] the religion of [pure] truth c,

[Then God be glorified told that the truth will overcome and the religion of the Islam will prevail on all religions in the future, so He said ]

that He may make it d victorious over all religions [in the future, at the time of the Awaited Mahdi: the Comforter] though the unbelievers are averse [to that.] e

 

32 a i.e. By saying their lies and by hindering people from God's religion: the religion of the Islam. The 'light' here means: the Quran.

 

33 b Which guides to the standard and straight way.

33 c Which will not be confounded with falsehood, as did it confounded the Judaism and Christianity; because many kings came to them who changed their religion and altered their program, so they worshipped the Baalim, Astaroth, the star Sirius and others.

Christians in like manner, worshipped the Christ and the cross, so they cofounded the truth with falsehood.

33 d i.e. the Islam religion.

33 e It is written in the commentary book of 'Majm'a al- Bayan by the Tibrissi, chapter 5, page 25 (a book in Arabic):

(("That will be at the time of the coming of Jesus son of Mary: any follower of any religion will either convert or pay the Jizya tribute."

Abu Ja'afa said: "That will be at the time of the coming of the Mahdi; all people will admit Mohammed salam to him."

Kalby said: "The Islam will prevail all religions; that will certainly take place, and it has not yet happened; Doomsday will not be unless such thing will occur."

Miqdad said: "I heard the messenger of God salam to him saying: "All people rural and urban will convert to the Islam, either by dignity or by compelling."))

 

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[34] 34. Believers, [beware of rabbis and monks; because] many of [Jewish priests:] rabbis and [Christian] monks devour the wealth of people a unjustly, and impede [people] from God's way b.

And they who hoard up gold and silver and expend them not c for the sake of God foretell them the tidings of a grievous chastisement [in the Next Life d.]

 

[35] 35. On the day when such [gold and silver] shall be heated in the fire of Hell, and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be seared therewith! "This is [the reward of] that which you stored up for yourselves; taste then [the chastisement of the gold and silver] that you hoarded up.

 

34 a They devour the property of people in the name of religion, and they take the bribe to judge people [with injustice.]

34 b i.e. from His religion: the Islam religion.

34 c On the needy, the poor, the wretched, orphans, and widows.

34 d Whether they are Jews, Christians or Muslims; because God dislikes every niggard and stingy one.

 

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[36] 36. To God, the number of months [in a one year] is twelve months by God's ordinance a in the day when He created the heavens and the earth b. Four of them are inviolable c:

That [forbidding] is the religion [of Abraham] the guardian d [of his followers and sons.]

So wrong not yourselves in them [by transgressing on people.]

And wage war [as much as you can] on all the associaters e even as they are waging war on all of you by all their means.

And know that God is along with those f who ward off [His punishment; that He helps them with victory.]

 

36 a i.e. with what God established and perfected in the universe.

36 b i.e. the planets including the earth.

36 c i.e. the fighting and chasing are forbidden during them.

36 d Like the guardian who grows and takes care about the orphans, and their livelihood affairs.

36 e Whether they be Arab, Jews, Christians and others.

So anyone worships and sanctifies a statue, then he is an associater; and anyone assigns peers apart from God, then he is an associater; and anyone makes intercession or mediation between him and God, or considers some intercessors for his behalf before God so he worships and sanctifies such intercessors, then he is an associater.

36 f i.e. with them by His help.

The inviolable months are: [four lunar months:] three of them are successive: Zul- Qadah, Zul-Hijja and Muharram, and one of them is solitary: which is the lunar month of Rajab.

 

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[The Arab were accustomed to forbid the fighting in the four inviolable months, according to what they adopt of the religion of Abraham and Ishmael, but afterwards they changed according to their desires; so that when some of their chiefs wanted to fight with another tribe, and that was one of the inviolable months, he said to his people: "let us postpone the forbidding of this month to the next."
E.g. if that was the lunar inviolable month of Muharaam, they fought during it, and considered it instead of the month of Safar, and they then abstain from fighting in the month of Safar; and as such did they substitute one month with another according to their own advantage; and this also is confirmed by their poetry.

Therefore, God dispraised them concerning such acts, and He said:]

[37] 37. The postponing [of an inviolable month] is only an addition to [your] disbelief;

whereby those [Arabs] who disbelieve are misled [by such postponement a]:

One year they violate [the fighting in] it, but keep it inviolable [another] year b, in order to tread on and crush the [inviolability of these] numbered [months] which God has made inviolable; so as to violate [according to their vain desires] that which God has made inviolable;

the evil of their work has been made fair-seeming to them c;

surely God guides not the people of the disbelievers [to the way of the truth; because they are wrong-doers d.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

37 a i.e. the chiefs among them mislead the followers with such alteration and postponement, so that their followers may follow them concerning the fighting to which they command them.

37 b According to their own desires; they make it lawful one year, while another year they make it unlawful; therefore, the making lawful or unlawful will be by their hands and as they like.

37 c i.e. their chiefs made fair-seeming to them such violation of the religion and such acts of falsehood.

37 d i.e. they wrong people and plunder their rights.

 

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[When the Prophet salam to him intended to go in the Campaign of Tabuk (or Tabook), and he ordered his companions to prepare for going forth, some of the Muslims slacked or lingered, and it was difficult to them because it was far away and due to the extreme heat because it was summer time; therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[38] 38. Believers, what's the matter with you that when it is said to you: "March forth [to struggle] in God's way", you slack and incline to [stay at your home-]land!?

Do you prefer the [temporary] life of this World to the [lasting] Next Life?

But the provision of this World's life is only trivial [compared] with the Next Life.

 

[39] 39. If you go not forth [to struggle in God's way], He will chastise you with a painful chastisement a, and instead of you He will [afterwards] substitute another people [obedient;] and you will not hurt Him with anything b [at all]; for God is Most-Able over all things. c

 

[40] 40. If you do not help him [: the prophet with the struggling, then know that] God did help him d,

when the disbelievers drove him out [of his home at Mecca, and they were two] the second of two [: the prophet and Abu-Bakr],

when both of them were in the cavern, as he [: Mohammed] said to his companion [: Abu-Bakr]: "Sorrow not; surely God is with us [with His protection and help.]"

Then God brought His reassurance down on him [: His messenger] and aided him with hosts [of angels to safeguard and help him], you had not seen [because they are spiritual];

and He made the word of the disbelievers the lowest e; whereas God's word is the uppermost f;

God is All-Mighty g, Most-Wise h.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

39 a With poverty, humiliation, illness, then by killing or death.

39 b By your abstinence from fighting, but you in fact will hurt yourselves because you will miss the spoils in this life of the World, and the reward in the Next Life.

39 c i.e. He is All-Able to substitute others instead of you.

 

40 d In the beginning, as will He keep up helping him till the end.

40 e i.e. their plan failed.

40 f i.e. God's word is the predominant and the successful.

40 g In His sovereignty: He takes revenge on the people of the association and idolatry.

40 h With His management.

When the Prophet together with Abu Bakr went in the cavern, God sent the spider which wove its cobweb on the gate of the cavern, and a pigeon came and laid its egg in the entrance of the cavern; so when Soraqa son of Malik came seeking after them, and he saw the pigeon eggs and the cob-web, he said: "Had anyone entered it, the egg would have broken, and the cob-web would have been disrupted; therefore he went away.

The Prophet said: "God, blind their sights, so they may not see us!"; so their sights were confounded against entering the cavern, and they started to go right and left round about the cavern.

 

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[41] 41. [O believers] march [to war and to fight the associaters, whether you are] lightly[-equipped with arms] or heavily[-equipped] a, and struggle in God's way with your possessions and your selves;

that [struggling] is [before God] better for you [than refraining from the struggling], if only you know [what reward you will have in the Next Life.]

 

 

41 a It means: Let not the little number and kind of weapon prevent you from going forth to fight; because God will help you, even if you fight only with stones, without weapon.

 

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[Then God be glorified told about the reason of their slacking and refraining from struggling:]

[42] 42. Had it been a gain near at hand and a good fruitful journey, they would have followed you [Mohammed] a,

but the far region seemed tiresome to them b;

and they will swear by God [before you] "If only we could, we should certainly have come forth with you [to fight.]"

[But surely, by such lying oath, false apology and their habitual hypocrisy] they only let themselves perish [into Hell]; and truly God knows that they are liars [with their apology.] c

 

42 a It means: If you had invited them to some spoils nearby, which they can easily seize, and a journey of which they hope to gain much gain and material profit, they would have followed you about it, hoping to get money.

42 b i.e. the region to which they aim is far to them, and the long distance is tiresome to them.

It was the campaign of Tabuk, when they were commanded to go forth from Medina to the north of the Arab Peninsula near to Jordan.

42 c Some commentators say that

the aya 9: 41 which means: ([O believers] march [to war and to fight the associaters, whether you are] lightly[-equipped with arms] or heavily[-equipped] ..etc.)

is abrogated by the aya 9: 91 which means: (There is no fault in the weak and the sick ..etc.) i.e. there is no blame on them if they slack to fight.

I say: There is no abrogation in either of the statements of either of these ayat. The first aya means all those who can fight, while God be glorified means in the second aya the weak and the ill in particular, whom He allowed to refrain from fighting.

 

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[43] 43. God pardon you [Mohammed!] Why did you give them [: those hypocrites a] leave [to stay behind], before you could distinguish those who are truthful from the liars?

[44] 44. The believers, in God and the Last Day, ask not of you [Mohammed] any leave [to slack and refrain from fighting], rather than that they may struggle [along with you] with their possessions and their persons; God is All-Knowing of those who ward off [His punishment.]

 

[45] 45. None do ask of you [Mohammed] leave [to refrain from fighting], but only those who believe not in God and the Last Day, and whose hearts are full of doubts, so with their doubt they do waver.

 

[46] 46. Had they [: the hypocrites] intended to go forth [to fight, together with the Prophet], they would certainly have made some preparation for it b:

but God was averse to their going forth [to the fighting c]; so He made them lag behind [by inserting laziness and fear in their hearts d],

and it was said [to them]: "Stay [in your homes] together with those [women and children] who stay [at home.]"

 

[47] 47. Had they gone forth among you [O believers], they would have added to your [power and help] nothing more than confusing [you];

and they would have invented lies [and rumors] among you,

seeking to make sedition for you e;

and among you there are some who would have listened to them f;

God is All- Knowing about wrong-doers g.

 

[48] 48. Before [the campaign of Tabuk or Tabook]

they sought [to stir] temptation h [for your comrades], and they disturbed the affairs for you [Mohammed] i

till the true [promise] was fulfilled [by your victory], and God's 'religion and word' prevailed,

though they were averse [to Our helping you. j]

 

[49] 49. Some of them k say: "Give me leave [O Mohammed], and don't tempt me to suffer [by going forth with you in such a very hot seasonl!]"

Have not such [men] already fallen into the 'torture and suffering'? m

And surely Hell will encompass the disbelievers [in the Next Life.] n

 

[50] 50. If a good fortuneo befalls you [Mohammed], it vexes them;

but if a misfortune p befalls you, they say: "We took precaution before [this affliction, by staying at home, so we have been safe of it]",

and they go away [to their families], rejoicing [with the affliction that has befallen you.]

 

[51] 51. Say [Mohammed, to them]: "Nothing [of bounties and favors] shall visit us but only that which God has decreed for us,

[and no misfortune has befallen us, in the Battle of Uhud, but that was due to our disobedience, and due to our comrades' wrong behavior] q;

He [: God] is our Patronr;

in God let believers put all their trust [when they go forth to fight the associaters.]"

 

[52] 52. Say: "Can you [hypocrites] await for anything to visit us, other than one of two glorious things [: the victory and spoils, or the martyrdom and attaining Paradise?]

While we await for you that God will afflict you with some punishment from Himself [like disease, poverty or one of the World afflictions], or by our hands [when we shall apply God's penalty on you by flogging you with lashes.]

Await then [the consequences]; for we [too] are awaiting with you."

 

 

43 a Who ask you to allow them to refrain from fighting with false apology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46 b i.e. for the fighting, but they in fact did not make any preparation for it.

46 c Together with the believers, because He knew the hypocrisy and perfidy which were in their hearts.

46 d So they refrained from going forth for fighting.

 

 

 

 

47 e i.e. they intend to trouble you and insert enmity among you, by means of such fabricated words.

47 f Thinking that they were truthful, because he does not know about them and what they conceal within their hearts.

47 g So that nothing of their acts and secrets may be hidden from Him.

 

48 h It is the deceiving of people with lies, misguidance, barring them from God's way and from struggling in the cause of God, and to insert doubts in the hearts of the weak Muslims.

48 i With their lies and bad conduct.

48 j i.e. that was in spite of them.

 

 

 

 

49 k i.e. those hypocrites just mentioned.

49 l And I cannot withstand the heat. The one who said this was Jadd son of Qais, one of the tribesmen of Bani Salama; so the Prophet allowed him to leave.

49 m i.e. these hypocrites have fallen in the chastisement, in fact.

49 n This is a threatening and warning for them about the occurrence of the punishment in the Next Life.

 

50 o Like some bounty from God, triumph and spoils.

50 p Like a distress or affliction.

 

 

 

51 q The indication of this is in His saying be glorified in the Quran 4: 79, which means:

(Whatever bounty visits you [Mohammed] it is from God; whatever affliction visits you is from yourself.)

51 r i.e. He takes care about our affairs, about supporting and helping us against our enemy; anyone has God as his Patron, he should not be afraid of the final consequences.

 

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[Then God be glorified explained that the expenditure of these hypocrites will not benefit them anything while they persist on their disbelief and disobedience, so He said:]

[53] 53. Say: "Expend willingly or unwillingly; it shall not be accepted from you [hypocrites]; surely you are a people disobedient [to God and His messenger.]"

 

[54] 54. What prevented [them from expending in the past, if they were believers in God and His messenger?]

[But their abstinence from expending in the past is that which prevents the acceptance of their spending, willingly, at the present time; because they expend only to show before the eyes of people.]

[The reason for their abstinence from expending] was that they disbelieved in God and His messenger, and [therefore] they come not to prayers except lazily, and they spend not [today] in the way of God but reluctantly.

 

[55] 55. So let not their [much] possessions or their [many] children appeal to you [Mohammed] a;

God only wants thereby to torture them in this life of the World b,

and that their souls [grieving] should pass into death c, while they are ungrateful [to God's bounties.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55 a So that you want them to expend out of their wealth for the Jihad (or the struggling for the cause of God), and to send their sons to fight.

55 b So that God gives them much wealth, then He takes it from them for any reason, and so they will be sad for the loss of their wealth. And He gives them children then He causes them to die, and so they will be sad for losing them.

55 c Because of their much sadness and depression.

 

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[Then He be glorified exposed one of their secrets:]

[56] 56. And they swear by God that they are [believers; and are some] of you, when they are not [some] of you a, but [in fact] they are a people that dread [you.]

 

[57] 57. If they could only find a shelter b, or some caverns c, or a subterranean cleft d, they would directly run away [from you] to it e, rebelling [against you and your religion.]

 

56 a i.e. they are not believers, as have you thought.

 

57 b i.e. a fort in a city inside which they shield themselves.

57 c in mountains, to which they may resort.

57 d Under the ground, inside which they may hide themselves from you.

57 e i.e. they would go to that shelter in which to shield themselves from you.

 

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[58] 58. Some of those [hypocrites] slander you [Mohammed] concerning [the distribution of] the alms a;

so if they are given [much] thereof, they will be well-pleased [with you]; but if they are not given [much] thereof, then they will be angry [with you, and will criticize you.]

 

[59] 59. Had they been well-pleased with the [property and lawful provision which] God [has given to them] and [the alms which] His messenger has given them,

and had they said: "God suffices us; God will [in the future] give us of His bounty, as will His messenger [the next time]; we covet of God['s offering]";

[it would have been better for them than their criticizing you about the alms.]

 

[60] 60. Alms [of the Zakat] are only for:

the poor b

and the needy c,

and those who work to [collect and distribute] the [Zakat] d,

and those whose hearts are to be reconciled e,

and to free the captives,

and the debtors f,

and for the cause of Godg,

and [for] the wayfarer h

an ordinance this from God i, for God is All-Knowing j [and] Most-Wise k.

 

58 a i.e. he criticizes you, if he finds his share is little; so he will say: "The Prophet does not distribute equally, but he gives to anyone whom he likes more than he gives to others."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60 b The 'poor' is the worker who is in need, because his salary does not suffice him.

60 c The 'needy' is the one in need, having no job, or cannot get a job to obtain the sustenance for himself and his family.

60 d i.e. the Zakat collectors and distributors.

60 e These were some chiefs of people in the time of the Prophet salam to him. The Prophet gave them a share of the Zakat in order to incline them to the Islam and to have their assistance to fight the associaters.

60 f That are indebted, whose debt will be repaid for them, if their debt was not because of God's disobedience neither was it because of squandering.

60 g Which is the 'jihad' or the 'struggling for the cause of God.'

60 h i.e. the traveller who is far away from his family, and has no communication with them.

60 i He prescribed for them.

60 j About the needs of His creatures.

60 k With what He prescribe for them and ordain to them.

 

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[61] 61. Some of them [: the hypocrites] hurt the prophet a, and say: "He is only a listener!" b

Say [Mohammed, to them]:

"A good listener is he for you c;

he believes in God d

and believes [in the revelations bearing good foretelling] to the believers e,

and a mercy for those among you [Muslims] who believe;

[In the Next Life] there will be a painful punishment for those who hurt the messenger of God.

 

[62] 62. They swear to you, [believers] by God [that they have never slandered the prophet f ] to please you, but God with His messenger are more worthy that they should please Him, if they are [true] believers.

 

[63] 63. Don't they g know that whosoever transgresses [the statements h of] God and His messenger there will be for him [in the Next Life] the fire of Hell, to be therein forever? That is the extreme disgrace.

 

61 a Between themselves, by evil words.

61 b i.e. he listens to whatever is said to him, and accepts it even if it is a lie.

61 c Because he accepts your apology and does not take you to account according to it.

61 d So hadn't he been a good listener, he would not have listened to the revelation, and believed in the oneness of God and the exclusive devotion to Him.

61 e i.e. he too believes in the foretelling which he receives about the future for their good fortune, happiness, victory, the prevailing of the Islam religion on all other religions and other things related to their affairs.

 

 

 

62 f Neither did they speak any words hurting to him, but in fact they are liars in their oath.

 

63 g i.e. the hypocrites.

63 h Which He prescribed for them.

 

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[64] 64. The hypocrites are afraid lest a soora should be revealed against them, telling them what [evil intentions] are in their hearts.

Say: "Mock on [and you will see what consequences will be of your mocking]; for surely God will manifest [your secrets, the exposure of which is] that you fear."

 

[Following the return of the army of the Muslims from the Campaign of Tabuk, a group of the hypocrites started to speak badly about the Prophet and his companions with ridicule and mockery and to laugh, and some of them said: "Aren't you afraid lest a soora should be revealed to the Prophet, telling about you and what you conceal within your hearts?

Therefore, Gabriel came down and revealed this aya to the Prophet:]

[65] 65. And if you [Mohammed] question them [about the reason for their laughing and mocking], then assuredly they will say: "We were only discoursing [about the stories of the ancients], and making fun [with their stories.]"

Say: "What, then were you mocking God, His revelations [of the Quran], and His messenger [Mohammed]?" a

 

[While the hypocrites were speaking and mocking, one of the Muslims heard them, so he said to them: "I heard you speaking so and so."
They said: "Yes, we spoke as such." For they thought he was one of their party.

Then when the Prophet asked them about the reason for their laughing and mockery, they apologized to him and said: "We only plunged in the stories of the ancients."

Therefore, His saying be glorified was revealed:]

[66] 66. Make no [false] excuses; you [hypocrites] have disbelieved after your believing b.

Should We pardon some of you [who repent], We will [certainly] punish others because of being guilty [deserving the punishment.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65 a It means: You did not plunge in the stories of the ancients, but you mocked God, His revelations and His messenger; then what outcome in the Next Life will be of one who mocks the God's revelations? Won't he be in Hell, and evil will such destination be?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66 b i.e. you have now denied your laughing and mocking, after you had admitted it before.

 

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[67] 67. The hypocrites, [both] men and women; some of them [learn hypocrisy] from others;

they enjoin indecency and forbid righteousnessa, and they hold off their hands [from expending for the cause of God];

they have forgotten about God [and His punishment b], so He has forsaken them [concerning His mercy];

surely it is the hypocrites that are the rebellious [against obeying God.]

 

[68] 68. God has promised the hypocrites, [both] men and women, and the disbelievers, with the fire of Hell, to be therein forever [on Doomsday].

It will be sufficient for them;

God curses them c, and they will have a perpetual chastisement.

 

 

 

 

67 a i.e. they enjoin the indecent acts and the bad manners, and forbid the righteous acts and the good conduct.

67 b So they do not remember Him, neither do they obey Him.

 

 

 

68 c Turning them, away from His mercy, and disgracing them.

 

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[69] 69. [Hypocrites! Your likeness is] as the likeness of those before you, who were stronger than you [in body strength], and more flourishing in wealth and children.

They had their enjoyment in their share,

and you [hypocrites] have your enjoyment in your share a, as did those before you have enjoyment in their share.

You have plunged b as had they plunged.

Such [hypocrites and their like] have their works frustrated in this [life of the] World and [in] the Next Lifec,

and such [hypocrites and their like] are the losersd.

 

[70] 70. Have there not come, to these [hypocrites], the tidings of those [whom We destroyed] before them [because of their unbelief and hypocrisy]? the folks of Noah e, Aadf and Thamood g, the people of Abraham h, the tribe of Midian [son of Abraham] i and the overturned [cities] j;

their apostles came to them with the manifest signs k;

God would not wrong them l, but it was themselves whom they wronged.

 

69 a In every unlawful and forbidden thing and in lusts and disobedience.

69 b Into the forbidden things and lusts, and you forsook the obedience.

69 c So they will not be rewarded for their work.

69 d Of both the life of this World and the Next Life.

 

70 e Whom We drowned.

70 f Whom We destroyed by the storms: i.e. the hurricanes.

70 g Whom We destroyed by the earthquake.

70 h Whom We destroyed by the plague.

70 i Their messenger or apostle was Shuaib son Tema son of Ishmael; We destroyed the tribe of Midian by the earthquake.

70 j i.e. the four cities of Lot's people.

70 k i.e. the obvious evidences and the outstanding arguments, but they denied them, so God destroyed them, according to their sins.

70 l With the destruction that afflicted them.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to describe the believers:]

[71] 71. And the believers, men and women, are 'helpers' one of the other;

they enjoin righteousness and forbid evil; they perform the prayers, pay the Zakat [alms] and obey God a and His messenger b.

[In the Next Life] God will be Merciful to such [believers];

God is All-Mighty [in His sovereignty; He will take revenge for them against their enemies], Most Wise [with His acts.]

 

[72] 72. God has [in the Quran] promised to the believers, [both] men and women, Gardens [in the Next Life] below [the trees of] which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever and good dwellings in the seven Gardens;

and God's good pleasure will be [to them] greater [than the prosperity in the Gardens]; that [prosperity and good pleasure] is [certainly] the great success [in the Next Life.]

 

 

 

 

71 a Concerning His bidding and forbidding.

71 b Concerning his instructions and commands.

 

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[73] 73. O prophet, struggle against the disbelievers [by the sword, and strive against the] hypocrites [by censuring and rebuking] and speak roughly to them. a

Their final resort [in the Next Life] will be into Hell an evil destination [indeed, will their destination be.]

 

 

73 a But don't deal with them gently.

 

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[This aya was revealed about the group of the Aqaba, who intended to assassinate God's messenger in the Aqaba, when they returned from Tabuk. They decided to sever the ties of his riding camel, then to prick his camel so that he would fall from it.

Therefore, God's messenger moved on in the Aqaba, while Ammar and Huzaifa were with him, one guiding his camel and the other pursued it with his drive.

And he commanded all people to take the way inside the valley.

Those who intended to kill him were twelve men; then when the Prophet inquired them concerning what they said about him, they swore by God that they did not say any bad words against him.

Therefore, His saying be glorified was revealed:]

[74] 74. They swear by God that they never said [anything bad, concerning the propheta], but [actually] they said the word of unbelief b [about the prophethood of Mohammed], and they disbelieved after their [embracing the] Islam c, and intended [to kill the prophet d] that which they could not achieve [because God acquainted him about their plot, so he took heed.]

They are resentful [against Our messenger] only because God, and His messenger, enriched them out of His favor e [whereas they should be grateful.]

So if they repent, it will be better for them; but if they turn away [from the truth and from the straight way], God will chastise them with a painful chastisement in this [life of the] World [with disease, poverty and abasement] and in the Next Life [with the chastisement of the Fire]; on the earth they will have neither protector nor helper [to save them from the punishment.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74 a But they were liars.

74 b i.e. the word of denial; it means: they denied the prophet-hood of Mohammed.

74 c i.e. they denied his prophecy after they had admitted it.

74 d On the night of the Aqaba, and to stir and scare his camel.

74 e i.e. because God enriched them and Mohammed gave them out of the spoils, so they grew arrogant. It means: they substituted the goodness with the evil, and the grace with the ingratitude.

 

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[75] 75. And some of them a covenanted God [saying]: "If He gives to us out of His surplus b, we will give alms [to the poor and needy] and become righteous."

 

[76] 76. Yet when He gave to them out of His surplus c, they were niggardly of it d, and turned away [from the poor e], while being averse [from the religion and from giving the Zakat alms. f]

 

[77] 77. Consequently the [stinginess] inserted hypocrisy in their hearts till the day [of their death g] when they shall meet [God's punishmenth]; for that they broke their covenant with God [as regards the expending to the poor and needy], and because of their lying [to God.]

 

[78] 78. Do they not know that God know their secret [intentions] and what they conspire together, and that God knows all that is unknown?

 

75 a i.e. the hypocrites.

75 b i.e. out of His abundant provision.

 

76 c i.e. out of the much wealth.

76 d And they did not expend out of it on the poor and needy, as had they covenanted God.

76 e Lest they should ask them.

76 f Which God prescribed.

 

 

77 g And their going to the world of souls.

77 h According to their stinginess and hypocrisy.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to dispraise another group of the hypocrites:]

[79] 79. The [hypocrites] who slander such of the believers as volunteer their freewill alms a,

as [do they slander] such [poor believers] who give [alms only] according to their means b,

so they mock them c, [when actually] God does mock them d, and there will be for them a painful chastisement [in the Next Life.]

 

[When the hypocrites heard the previous aya 9: 79, some of them came to the Prophet and said to him: "God's messenger, ask God's forgiveness for me!" So the Prophet asked God's forgiveness for him.
Therefore, this aya was revealed:]

[80] 80. [Mohammed,] ask [from God] to forgive them, or ask not [from God] to forgive them; if you [Mohammed] ask [from God] to forgive them [even] for seventy timese, God will not pardon them; that is because they disbelieved God and His messenger; God guides not [to the way of the truth] the people of the ungodly.

 

79 a Which they give to the Prophet to distribute it to the poor.

79 b i.e. who have not enough money to give alms out of it, but they give alms only according to their means: because some believers are rich so they bring much money, while other believers are poor and they like to give alms, so they bring a little amount.

Then when the hypocrites see them, they mock them because of the little alms that they give, and they mock also any believer who brings much money about whom they say: He likes to show before others and likes the reputation and therefore, he brings much money.

79 c i.e. the hypocrites mock the believers who contribute with alms; so God said:

79 d i.e. God mocks the hypocrites and their ignorance about the final consequences.

 

 

80 e The 'seventy' here implies the exaggeration in the number of times.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to dispraise the hypocrites who stayed behind and did not go to struggle together with the Prophet, in the campaign of Tabuk, and they preferred to stay at home:]

[81] 81. Those [hypocrites] who were left behind [instead of going forth to struggle, in the Tabuk expedition] rejoiced in tarrying [at Medina] apart from God's messenger [after he went forth to struggle, in the Tabuk expedition];

they were averse to struggle, with their possessions and persons, for the cause of God;

they said [to each other]: "Go not forth in the heat [of Summer.]"

Say [Mohammed, to them]: "The fire of Hell is hotter", if only they could understand. a

 

[82] 82. So [from now on] they shall laugh little and weep much as a recompense for [the sins] that they earn. b

 

[Then God be glorified addressed His messenger:]

[83] 83. So, if God returns you [Mohammed, to Medina from your campaign] to a party of them c, and they ask your permission to go forth [to struggle in another campaign], say [to them]: "You shall not go forth with me [to any campaign] ever, and you shall not fight with me any enemy.

You were well-pleased to tarry d the first time, so now tarry with those left behind [: kids and children.]"

 

[84] 84. And pray you [Mohammed] never [the prayer for the dead] for anyone of them e when he is dead,

nor stand over his grave [to recite the 'opening soora' of the Quran, and to supplicate God for him.]

They disbelieved in God and His messenger, and died while they were disobedient [: did not repent, nor did they change their conduct.] f

 

[85] 85. So let not their possessions and their children appeal to you [Mohammed, so that you covet that they may expend out of their possessions for the cause of God, and may present their children to fight in God's way]; God wants only to torment them therewith in the present Worldly life, and that their souls [grieving] may pass into death, while being ungrateful [to God's bounties.] g

 

81 a It means: if their lagging behind or defaulting from the struggling is because of the heat, then what will their condition be when they will enter into Hell?

 

82 b The 'laughing' here implies the delight, and the 'weeping' implies the sadness.
It means: We will make their life in the World including little delight and much sadness, so that their laughing will decrease as will their weeping increase; and all that is according to the sins they gain.

 

83 c i.e. those who stayed behind or defaulted on going to fight together with the Prophet.

83 d Instead of going forth to the campaign of Tabuk.

 

84 e i.e. the hypocrites.

84 f i.e. some of them died, and some of them are still living and have not died yet.

 

85 g This has been interpreted in the aya 55 of this soora.

 

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[86] 86. And when a soora is revealed [about the struggling, and it is mentotined in it:] "Believe in God['s rewarda], and struggle along with His messenger", the affluent among them ask leave of you [Mohammed b] saying: "Let us be with the tarrying [at Medinac.]"

 

[87] 87. They prefer to be with [the kids and children d] who stay behind [at home]: Their hearts have been sealede and so they realize not. f

 

[88] 88. But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, struggle for the cause of God with their possessions and their persons g,

and it is they who shall have [all] good things [in this life of the World and in the Next Life],

and it is these who will be successful [in accessing to the goal.]

 

[89] 89. God has prepared for them [in the Next Life] Gardens with rivers flowing below their [trees], therein to dwell forever; that is the mighty triumph.

 

86 a Which He prepared for those who struggle in His cause.

86 b To exempt them from going forth to fight.

86 c And we don't like to go forth together with you.

 

87 d Because all the men went to struggle in the cause of God.

87 e With the 'rayn', [which is the rust formed on the heart because of the sins.]

It means: the stinginess and love of money stamped on their hearts with the 'rayn', which prevented them from going forth to struggle in the cause of God.

87 f About the reward and prosperity in Paradise which God has prepared for those who struggle in the cause of God.

 

88 g And those will have their reward with God.

 

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[Then God be glorified told about those who defaulted on fighting, that they were two kinds:

one kind were hypocrites who lied to God and to His apostle, by claiming the 'faith and belief' and they stayed behind and did not go to struggle in God's way, without asking permission;

and another kind were weak, ill and elderly who could not fight, and they came to the Prophet apologizing, so he permitted them to stay behind. This is His saying be glorified:]

[90] 90. And those of the Bedouins, having acceptable excuses a, came in order that permission [to stay at home] might be granted them [so the Prophet permitted them.]

Whereas those [hypocrites] who lied to God and His messenger, tarried [at home, without being permitted by the prophet];

there shall befall the disbelievers among themb a painful chastisement [in the Next Life.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

90 a Who could not go forth to fight.

90 b i.e. those who stayed behind and did not go for fighting.

 

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[When the Prophet intended to go forth in the Campaign of Tabuk, some of the 'Helpers' came to him, who were weak and could not go together with him, in addition to some others who were ill, and they asked his permission to leave the struggling, so he permitted them that.

Some other 'Helpers' who were poor and had no riding-animal to ride on in the journey, neither had they money to expend for the cost of the journey, and they said: "God's messenger, carry us on some riding-animals so that we may go forth to struggle in the cause of God."

The Prophet said: "I have no riding-animals to carry you on."

So they returned back from him, weeping for sadness because they missed their opportunity to go for struggling.

Therefore, these ayat were revealed concerning them:]

[91] 91. There is no fault in the weak and the sicka and those [poor] who find nothing to expend [for the journey] b, if they are sincere to God [in words and acts] and to His messenger. c

There is no way to [blame or punish] the good-doers d God is Most Forgiving [for them], Most Merciful [to them.]

 

[92] 92. Neither [is there any fault] in those: to whom you said, when they came to you [Mohammed] to mount them [on riding-animals for the struggle]: "I find not [any riding-animalse] whereon to mount you"; they went away, their eyes overflowing with tears: grieving f, because they had nothing to expend [for the journey.]

 

[93] 93. The way [for rebuking and punishing] is open only against those who ask of you leave [to stay at home], and being rich g; they were well-pleased to be with those [kids and children] left behind; God has set a seal [of the 'rayn' h] on their hearts i, so they know not [the final consequences.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

91 a No blame for them because of their leaving the fighting.

91 b i.e. there is no sin on their part because of the defaulting on fighting.

91 c It means: if they keep up to this belief and this loyalty.

91 d i.e. because they are good-doers, there will not befall them any blame or punishment.

 

 

92 e Like horses, camels and others.

92 f For missing the opportunity to go forth to struggle.

 

 

93 g i.e. they can afford the cost of the journey, and can buy the horses to ride on.

93 h Which is the rust that accumulates on the heart because of continuous sinning.

93 i Because of their stinginess, love of money and refraining from struggling for the cause of God.

 

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[Then God be glorified addressed the believers:]

[94] 94. They a will apologize to you [believers] when you return [from Tabuk] to them [in the city of Medina.]

Say [Mohammed, to these hypocrites:] "Give not [any untrue] excuses; we will not believe your [words]; God has already informed us of the true facts about you.

God will see your deeds [and record them in details] as will His messenger [testify against you on Judgment Day concerning your deeds],

then [after your death] shall you be brought back to [God] Who knows all that [of your deeds] is hidden [from people] and all that is open [before their eyes];

and He shall inform you of what [evil deeds] you did.

 

[95] 95. They [: the hypocrites who stayed at home] will swear by God to you [believers] if you return back [from Tabuk] to them [in the city of Medina] in order that you may turn away from them [and may not hurt them], so turn away from them [and do not approach them]; [for] they are 'ill with a psychological disease b [of hypocrisy]', and their resort will be Hell c, as a recompense of what [evil deeds d] they have earned.

 

[96] 96. They [will] swear to you [believers] that you may be well-pleased with them; but even if you are well-pleased with them, God will surely not be well-pleased with the people of the ungodly.

 

 

 

94 a i.e. the hypocrites who lagged behind and tarried in Medina, and did not go to struggle together with the Prophet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95 b So beware of them lest you may acquire an infection from them.

95 c To which they will resort on Doomsday.

95 d And bad habits, disbelief and hypocrisy.

 

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[Then God be glorified described the hypocrites among the Bedouin Arab: the people of the desert and rural regions:]

[97] 97. Rural Arabs a are more stubborn [than the hypocrites of the Medina city] in unbelief and hypocrisy b,

and more likely of disbelief because they are ignorant of the exactness of what God has revealed to His messenger c;

God is All-Knowing [about their condition], Most Wise [in dealing with them.]

 

[98] 98. Some of the rural Arabs d considers what he expends [for the cause of God], as a losse, and waits for calamities to befall you f.

[So God be glorified - replied to them:]

The evil turn of fortune will be theirs g;

God is All-Hearing [of their words], All-Knowing [about their deeds.]

 

97 a Outside the Medina city.

97 b It means: The people of the desert and rural regions, if they are hypocrites, they will be more in disbelief than the urban because of their being far from the places of knowledge and listening to admonitions and wrangling and seeing the miracles.

So the 'Arab' is the urban, and the 'Bedouin' is the rural or desert people. The Arab are two descendents: the Adnanites and the Qahtanites.

97 c Because they are not in the Medina city in order to hear the admonition and so receive admonition, and to listen to the Quran and so know the statements God revealed in it.

 

98 d i.e. the Bedouins.

98 e And that his expenditure was lost uselessly, and that he will not be rewarded for it.

98 f It means: they wait for the death of the Prophet in order to turn back to the religion of the idolsters and associaters.

98 g It means: The calamity which they anticipate to afflict the Muslims, will in fact befall them.

 

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[Abu Dihdah had two gardens, so he presented one of them to the Prophet salam to him; therefore, this aya was revealed about him:]

[99] 99. And some of the rural Arabs believe in God and the Last Day a, and consider what they expend [for the sake of God] as [pious gifts b] bringing them near [to God], and [likewise their] presents to the messenger.

[Then God confirmed their good intentions:]

Surely, that will bring them near [to God, as do they think]; soon will God admit them into His mercy [: into His paradise, in the afterlife]; for surely God is Most Forgiving [to those expending for His sake], Most Merciful [to believers.]

 

[Then after God be glorified mentioned the believers among the rural Arabs, who believe in God and the Last Day, He followed that by saying:]

[100] 100. And those outstripping [others with their belief], the first pioneers among the 'Emigrants' [: the Meccans d]

and [those outstripping others with their belief, among] the 'Helpers' e

and 'those who follow them' with good [righteous deeds f.]

God is well-pleased g with them, as are they well-pleased with Him h;

and He has prepared for them Gardens with rivers flowing below their [trees], to be therein forever; such is the mighty triumph.

 

 

99 a i.e. he believes in Doomsday.

99 b i.e. the garden which he presented to the Prophet. He also believes that it will bring him near to God.
It implies: he considers both his expenditure for the sake of God in addition to his presents to the messenger; he considers both to bring him near to God.

 

 

 

 

 

100 d Who emigrated to Abyssinia then to Medina.

100 e i.e. the believers among the people of Medina.

100 f And embracing the religion of the Islam after them, and adopt their program.

100 g Because they responded to God and the messenger.

100 h According to the dignity and honor that He gave to them in the life of the World, in addition to the reward and prosperity in the Next Life.

 

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[Then God be glorified started once again to dispraise the hypocrites:]

[101] 101. And some of the rural Arabs round about you[r city of Medina] are hypocrites; and some of the people of the City [of Medina] are accustomed to hypocrisy. a

You [Mohammed] know them not; but we do know them,

and We shall chastise them twice b, then they will be turned to a mighty chastisement [on Doomsday.]

 

[102] 102. And others have [repented and] confessed their sins, had [in the past] mixed a righteous with another evil deed.

It may be that God will turn towards them [and accept their repentance];

God is Most-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

 

 

101 a i.e. they are trained and accustomed to hypocrisy.

101 b The first one will be in the life of the World by disease and humiliation, and the second will be in the afterlife following death.

 

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[Then those who lagged behind and defaulted on fighting, and those hypocrites, brought their money to the Prophet that he may expend them in expiation or atonement for their sins, but the Prophet refused to accept that; therefore, His saying be glorified in this aya was revealed:]

[103] 103. [Mohammed], take, out of their wealth, alms to cleanse them [from sins] a and [you] purify them. b

And give them offerings [out of the spoils, in the future c]; your offerings are a comfort for them; God is All-Hearing [of their repentance], All-Knowing [of their alms-giving.] d

 

 

103 a i.e. the alms will cleanse them from the filth of sins.

103 b i.e. that you expend on the poor, so they will be purified.

103 c And distribute to them some of the spoils.

103 d Therefore, the Prophet took one third of their money and expended that on the poor as expiation for their sins.

 

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[104] 104. Don't they a know that it is God Who accepts repentance from His servants b, and receives the alms c;

and that God is the Receiver of the repentance [of those that repent], the Most Merciful [to those that regret?]

 

104 a i.e. these hypocrites who have not yet repented.

104 b So they should repent, as have their brethren repented.

104 c i.e. He takes the spiritual out of them. This is indicated by His saying be glorified in the Quran 3: 30, which means:

(On the day [of death] when every soul will find itself confronted [in the afterlife] with all the [good] it has done.)

And God keeps the spiritual of their alms, in reserve for them in the afterlife.

 

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[Then God be glorified started to threaten the hypocrites who did not repent:]

[105] 105. Say [Mohammed, to these hypocrites who have not yet repented]:

"Do your work [whether good or evil];

for [surely] God will see your work [and register all of it against you],

as will His messenger and the believers [give witness against you, on Judgment Day, concerning your work],

then shall you be brought back [after your death] to [God] Who knows that [of your work] is hidden and that is open;

and He shall inform you of what [evil deeds and shameful habits] you did [in the life of the World.]

 

 

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[Afterwards, God be glorified told about another group of the hypocrites:]

[106] 106. And [there are] other [men] deferred to God's decision a, either He will punish them [if He does not accept their repentance], or will turn towards them [if He accepts it];

God is All-Knowing b, Most Wise c.

 

 

106 a i.e. deferred and detained until God gives order concerning them; they were: Hilal son of Umayya Al-Waqifi, Murara son of Rabi'a and Ka'ab son of Malik.

106 b About all that will happen in the future.

106 c With His acts and commands.

 

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[The clan of Bani Am'r, son of Awf, built a mosque in Medina to gather in it for prayers and the recital of the Quran, and they sent to the messenger of God to come to them, so he came and prayed inside it.

Then, some hypocrites among the clan of Bani Ghunm, son of Awf, envied them, so they said: We will build a mosque in order to gather in it and do not attend the prayer-assembly of Mohammed.

And they built a mosque, then when they finished its building, they came to God's messenger, while he was preparing for the Campaign of Tabuk, and they said: "God's messenger, we built a mosque and we want you to come and perform prayers in it."

The Prophet said: "I am about to set off for a campaign, and when we come back, we shall come to you, by God's will."

Then when God's messenger returned back from Tabuk, this aya was revealed to him concerning the mosque:]

[107] 107. And those [hypocrites] who have taken a mosque: in opposition [of the believers] and disbelieving [in the prophethood of Mohammed],

and to divide the believers [to be two parties: that of the believers and that of the hypocrites],

and as a place of 'ambush and watching' a for [the behalf of] him who fought God and His messenger aforetime b

they c will surely swear: "We purposed [by building the mosque] nothing but only good [work]"; and God testifies that they indeed are liars.

 

[Then God be glorified addressed His messenger, and said:]

[108] 108. [Mohammed,] never stand [to pray] in it d;

[another] mosque founded on piety from the first day [of its foundation] is more worthy that you should stand [to pray and worship] in it e;

in that [mosque] are men who love to purify themselves [with water];

for God loves those who purify themselves [from dirt and from the issue of semen.]

 

[109] 109. Then is he better who founded his building on warding off f [the disobedience of] God and [on] His good pleasure?

or he who founded his building on the brink of a crumbling bank ready to collapse?

And it collapsed with himg, into the fire of Hellh;

God guides not the people of the wrong-doers [to the way of the truth.]

 

[Then God be glorified said:]

[110] 110. The building they have built will be a source of continuous doubt within their heartsi,

until their hearts are cut up into pieces [due to impatience] j;

but God is All-Knowing [about their secrets], All Wise [concerning His acts with them.] k

 

 

 

 

 

107 a Against the believers.

107 b The one who fought God and His messenger was the monk Abu 'Aamir, who became a monk in the 'ignorance pre-Islam period', and wore the garb of monks.

Then when the Prophet came to Medina, he envied him, and stirred the Arab clans against him; then, following the conquer of Mecca, he ran away to the city of Ta'if; then when the people of Ta'if converted, he went to Syria to the Byznatanites.

His son was Hanthala, the one washed by the angels, who was killed fighting together with the Prophet in the Battle of Uhud.

Abu A'amir had sent to the hypocrites telling them: "Be ready and build a mosque, for I am going to Caesar to bring the host from him in order to drive Mohammed out of Medina."

So those hypocrites hoped that Abu A'amir might come together with his hosts; but he died before the king of the Byaznatinites was to come.

107 c These hypocrites.

 

108 d i.e. the mosque of the hypocrites.

108 e It means: every mosque which is founded on piety from the first day is more worthy that you should pray inside it.

He means by that: the mosque of Quba, built by the believers.

 

109 f i.e. is he who founded and constructed its building according to God's fearing and good-pleasure, like the clan of Bani Am'r son of Awf who are believers.

109 g i.e. the mosque collapsed with his owner, who was Abu Aamir who instructed the hypocrites to build a mosque against the believers.

109 h Like the hypocrites: the clan of Ghunm son of Awf.

It means: their building is like one building on the brim of a river, on a sandy ground, so when water of the river touched it, the building will be demolished and be destroyed.

 

110 i It means: the mosque which they built would be a source of continuous doubt in the hearts of their companions who did not know about their secrets, and what for they built it; so they said: "Our companions are not any believers nor do they perform the prayers, so why did they build this mosque?" So they were in doubt about its building.

110 j And then they would uncover their secrets to them and the purpose for which they built this mosque. Such expression is a parable for the extreme patience in Arabic, so one may say: "My heart has been cut up because of the waiting!"

The meaning: They were keeping as top secret the matter of the mosque, to the extent that most of their companions did not know for what purpose they built that mosque. But God revealed their secret and manifested their falsehood intentions.

110 k Then when the Prophet returned back from Tabuk, he commanded that their mosque should be demolished, therefore they demolished it.

 

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[111] 111. God has bought from the believers their persons and their possessions that [in exchange] Paradise will be theirs a:

[Then God be glorified explained for what they should use their souls:]

they should fight for the cause of God: to kill [the disbelievers] and [to fight until they] be killed;

that is a promise binding on Him b [as did He promise:]

in the Torah [to the Jews who struggled for the cause of God, in the time of Moses],

and [in] the Gospel [to the Christians who struggled in the time of Jesus],

and [in] the Quran [to the Muslims who struggled in your time, O Mohammed];

so who fulfills his covenant truer than God?

Therefore, rejoice in the bargain you have made with Him; that is the supreme success [for those who struggle, in God's way, with their persons and their possessions.]

 

[Then God be glorified started to describe those believers and their acts, so He said:]

[112] 112. Those [believers] who repent [from sins],

those who worship [God alone c],

those who thank [God for His bounties],

those who journey [throughout the earth to preach God's religion],

those who bow [in prayers],

those who prostrate themselves [to God d],

those who enjoin the good, those who forbid the evil,

and those who keep God's bounds e [and contradicting not His commands]

so give [O Mohammed] the glad news to the believers [of the lasting life and perpetual prosperity.]

 

111 a The 'buying' is the exchange of something for another.

It means: God has given Paradise to believers in exchange:

for their souls that they should use in His obedience and to struggle for His cause,

and for their wealth which they should use in His way;

so He will give them Paradise instead of all that.

111 b It implies: God promised them Paradise with a true promise that He will not break.

 

 

112 c And they do not associate anyone with Him concerning His worship.

112 d In submission, devotion and compliance to God.

112 e i.e. they are obedient to Him.

 

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[Some of the Muslims said to the Prophet salam to him: "Would you ask forgiveness to our fathers who died in the ignorance pre-Islam period?"

Therefore, His saying be glorified was revealed:]

[113] 113. It is not for the Prophet and the believers to ask [God's] forgiveness for the associaters, even though they be near kinsmen a a, after that it has become clear to them that [they were associaters, and that] they [will] be the inhabitants of Hell.

 

[When the previous aya was revealed, they said: "But how did Abraham ask God's forgiveness to his father who was an associater?"

Therefore, His saying be glorified in this aya was revealed:]

[114] 114. Abraham did not ask pardon for his father, but only because of a promise [his father] had made to him [to think about believing a],

and when it became clear to [Abraham] that [his father] was an enemy of God b, he declared himself quit of his [father];

Abraham, indeed, was tender-hearted c [and] clement.

 

[115] 115. God misguides not any people d, after He has guided them e, until He makes clear to them what they should avoid f;

God, indeed, is All-Knowing about everything.

 

113 a a i.e. even if they are the most near in kindred to them.

 

114 a As in His saying be glorified in the Quran 19: 46, which means:

("Leave me alone for a while.") i.e. leave me for some period of time in order to contemplate that to see whether your words are correct or wrong. So when he promised him with that, Abraham thought that his father will recognize the way to the truth if he thinks about that to which he invited him.

So he said to his father: ("Safety be for you [if you follow my words]; I will ask forgiveness from my Lord for you; for He is All-Acquainted about me.")

114 b Because he did not believe, neither did he forsake worshipping the idols.

114 c i.e. he had much sorrow for his father and his people because they did not abandon the worshipping of the idols, neither did they listen to his words.

 

115 d About the way of the truth.

115 e To Him, like Abraham and others.

115 f i.e. God does not decide to misguide anyone of the believers unless He explains to him, that which he should avoid; but if he then disobeys God's command, neither does he avoid the forbidden things, then He decides that he is misguided.

The meaning: Abraham did not know that asking forgiveness for associaters is not allowed, but then when We explained that to him, he quitted himself of his father. As in the meaning of the next part of the aya:

(And when it became clear to [Abraham] that [his father] was an enemy of God, he declared himself quit of his [father])

 

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[116] 116. Surely to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth a; He gives life [to whatever thing therein He likes], and makes to die [whatever living being is therein]; and you [people] have not, apart from God, neither any patron b, nor any helper c.

 

116 a i.e. the kingdom or ownership of the planets including the earth.

116 b i.e. one to take care about your affairs.

116 c To help you against your enemy.

 

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[117] 117. God has turned towards the Prophet and the 'Emigrants' and the 'Helpers'a who followed him b in the hour of difficulty c, after the hearts of a party of them were about to swerve aside d;

then He turned towards them [afterwards];

surely He is Most Kind to them [and] Most Merciful.

 

[118] 118. [God has] also [turned] towards the three [men: Ka'ab, Murara and Hilal] who were left behind [in Medina, and did not go forth to Tabuk] e,

until when the earth became strait for them, for all its breadth f, and their souls became strait for them g, and they became certain that there could be no escape from God but only to Him;

then He turned towards them, that they may [in the future] repent [from repeating such an act];

surely God is the Receiver of repentance, the Most Merciful.

 

117 a Concerning their staying behind and not going forth.

117 b In going forth to Tabuk.

117 c i.e. in the hard time when it was very hot, neither had they any sufficient food nor enough riding-animals to ride other than only few animals.

Then, moreover, they suffered thirst, so the Prophet prayed God to send down the rain on them, and the sky rained on them so they drank and filled their canteens (or skins.)

117 d From the struggling for the cause of God, and they intended to depart from their campaign without permission, but God confirmed them by the rain, and so they went in company with the Prophet.

 

118 e It means: He repented on the three men who had not gone with the Prophet in the campaign of Tabuk. The three men were: Hilal son of Umayya Al-Waqifi, Murara son of Rabi'a and Ka'ab son of Malik, who defaulted from God's messenger and did not go together with him; their lagging was not because of hypocrisy, but because of slackness, then they regretted.

Then when the Prophet returned to Medina, they came to him apologizing; but the Prophet did not speak to them and ordered the Muslims that they should not speak to them, so people deserted them including even the children; so living in the Medina city was so difficult to them, and they went out to the mounains and stayed there for fifty days supplicating God and turning to Him in repentance so He accepted their repentance:

118 f They were in great distress, to the extent that they felt the earth so narrow for them in spite of its tremendous extension.

118 g So they went out to the mountains.

 

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[119] 119. Believers, ward off [the disobedience of] God a, and be with the truthful [believers.] b

 

[120] 120. It was not ought for the people of Medina and the rural Arabs round about them to slack from God's messenger [when he went forth to Tabuk], and to prefer themselvesc to his own self d;

That e is because they are smitten neither by thirst, nor fatigue, nor starvation in the way of God, neither do they tread any land to vex the disbelievers f, nor do they do any harm g to the enemy;

but a righteous deed is thereby written for their account;

surely God wastes not the wage of the good-doers.

 

[121] 121. Nor do they expend [for the cause of God] any sum, small or great, nor do they traverse h any valley, but it is written to their account [as a righteous deed], that God may reward them [in the Next Life] with a best reward for their deeds.

 

119 a Concerning the lagging behind and going not together with the Prophet.

119 b Who were truthful about that to which they covenanted the Prophet; therefore, fight the associaters for His cause and go forth with the Prophet in his campaigns.

 

120 c About the heat of the weather and the difficulty of the journey.

120 d But they must support and assist him and must never lag behind him.

120 e Forbidding from slacking and staying behind.

120 f i.e. the disbelievers are annoyed by the treading of the believers on any land or country.

120 g i.e. they afflict the associaters with any affliction like the killing, injury or afflicting their property.

 

121 h Or cross by walking.

 

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[When the number of the Muslims increased, the Prophet started to send brigades for struggling in the cause of God; so everyone of the Muslims started to say: I go with the brigades for struggling in the cause of God.

Therefore, His saying be glorified was revealed in this aya:]

[122] 122. It is not for all the believers to go forth [for struggling for the cause of God] as a whole;

but why should not a party of every tribe of them go forth [for fighting],

so that [the others who stay] may become learned in religion a, and to warn their people b when these return to them [from the struggling],

that haply they may beware [of and avoid the prohibitions?]

 

 

 

122 a i.e. the others who do not go for fighting may learn and study the statements of the religion and the Quran and to study it.

122 b i.e. to warn their people of the forbidden things and to acquaint them about the religious duties.

 

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[123] 123. Believers, fight against those disbelievers that are violent against you a, and be rough with them b, and be sure that God is [along] with c those who ward off [His disobedience.]

 

123 a i.e. those who attack you in the battle field and fight you violently. Therefore, do fight them violently and severely, and never run away before them.

This is similar to His saying be glorified in the Quran 8: 15, which means:

(Believers, when you encounter the disbelievers, in the battle field, attacking you: never turn your backs to them.)

It means: Don't run away before them, but stand firm, so that you may defeat them.

123 b i.e. be stern with them in fighting and smiting.

123 c By helping them.

 

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[Then God be glorified returned once again to dispraise the hypocrites:]

[124] 124. And when a soora a is revealed [to Mohammed], some of them b say [mocking]: "Which one of you has this [soora] added more to his faith?"c

[So God be glorified replied to them, and said:]

As regards to those who believe; it does add more to their faith, and they do rejoice [in its revealing.]

 

[125] 125. Whereas those having a disease [of hypocrisy d] in their hearts; it adds more [psychological] illness to their [psychological] illness, and they die [with their grief] while being disbelievers.

 

[126] 126. Do these [hypocrites] not see that they are tried [with disease or exposure] once or twice every year? e

Yet still they do not repent [from their aggression and hypocrisy], nor do they receive admonition.

 

[127] 127. Whenever a soora is revealed [exposing their secrets f], they look [with surprise] one to another: "Does anyone see you [and tell Mohammed about your secrets? g]

Then they turn away [to their plotting and hypocrisy.]

God has turned away their hearts [from the belief]; for that they are a people who do not realize [the consequences of their plotting and hypocrisy h.]

 

 

 

124 a i.e. the Quran revelations.

124 b i.e. the hypocrites.

124 c They said this in a way of disbelieving and mockery.

 

 

125 d Which is a psychological disease.

 

 

126 e The meaning: Don't these hypocrites see the affliction with which they are afflicted every year, in order that they may beware of God's punishment.

 

 

 

127 f Which they conceal in their breasts.

127 g So that he says an aya of the Quran about us!

127 h And to where it will lead them.

 

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[Then God be glorified addressed all the Arab:]

[128] 128. Now there has come, to you [: the Arab], an [Arabian] apostle [: Mohammed]: being one of you a;

your suffering b is so difficult to him;

keen is he on you[r belief];

and to believers he is compassionate [and] merciful.

 

[129] 129. So if they turn away [from you, Mohammed c], say: "God suffices me; there is [in the universe] no god but He; in Him I have put my trust [to preach the religion]; He is the Lord of the Great Throne d.

 

 

 

128 a i.e. who speaks your language and is one of your elites.

128 b i.e. your difficulties, your distress and weakness.

 

 

129 c And believe you not, then say

129 d However, I have explained about the Throne in my book

The Universe and the Quran .

 

By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 9 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)

 

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