Soora 20

 

[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)

 

The meaning

 

More explanation

[2] 1. Ta. Ha. i.e. (Tahir. Hadi.) a :

[It means:]

(O Mohammed: the Purely exclusive b [of any wickedness] and the Guide c [of people to Gods way.])

 

[3] 2. We have not revealed the Quran to you [Mohammed] to be wearied d.

[4] 3. But only as an admonition to him who fears [and dreads the punishment of his Lord.]

 

[5] 4. The revealing [of the Quran] is from [God] Who created the earth and the high e heavens [that are above the earth.] f

 

[6] 5. [God] Most Gracious has mounted over the Throne. g

 

[7] 6. To Him belong all [birds] that [fly] in the [gaseous] heavens, and [all men and beasts] that [move] on earth, and all h that is between them, and all [animals that hide in their dens] under the soil.i

 

1 a These are abbreviated letters: two letters of the Arabic alphabet: each letter is a symbol of a word, and the letter is the first letter of the word.

Therefore, Ta means: tahir or pure [of wickedness], which is the title or surname of the Prophet; and Ha means: hadi or guide [of people to the way of God], which also is the title or surname of the Prophet.

1 b & 1 c These are the surnames or titles of the Prophet.

 

 

2 d i.e. to weary yourself with much prayers, but We revealed it to you so that you may teach and guide people to worship their Lord; which is the meaning of the next aya:

 

 

4 e Gaseous.

4 f It means: The Quran has been revealed to you by command of God Who created the earth and high heavens which are above the earth: and they are the gaseous heavens.

 

5 g In my book The Universe and the Quran , I have explained in details about the heavens , and the Throne . As also in the interpretation of the Quran 13: 2 in summary.

 

 

6 h The cloud that brings the rain.

6 i i.e. under ground.

The meaning: All these are His creatures which are at His disposal, so He offers out of that as He likes to whomever He pleases.

 

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[8] 7. And whether you [Mohammed] proclaim [your] words [to the associaters and invite them to the religion] yet, surely, He knows [your words and will reward you according to your preaching His religion, and He knows] the [words with which you invite them to God, in] secret, and [He knows] what is even more hiddena [than the secret].b

 

[9] 8. God; there is no god [in the entire universe] but only He [alone]; His are the Names Most Beautiful; [therefore, worship Him but dont worship anyone else.]

 

7 a Which is that which you discourse with yourself, so He will reward you according to it, and will not decrease anything of your reward and recompense.

 

7 b This aya is related to His saying be glorified in this soora 20: 3, which means:

(But only as an admonition to him who fears [and dreads the punishment of his Lord.])

Therefore, the meaning is: Admonish the associaters, with the Quran and invite them to worship God Most Gracious, publicly and secretly, and God will reward you according to your carrying out the preaching to His religion, and dont mind about their mockery, and say to them:

 

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[Afterwards, God be glorified started to remind him with the story of Moses, and how he carried out the mission seriously and with a firm will, and he did not dread the arrogant Pharaoh, in order to imitate him in carrying out the mission and dread not the associaters; therefore, He said:]

[10] 9. Have [you, Mohammed, understood] the story of Moses a [when it had] come to you [in the previous Quran revelation?] b

 

[11] 10. When he saw a fire [in the wilderness of Sinai c], and said to his family: "Stay here; for I perceive d a fire! Perhaps I may bring to you some flaming torch therefrom, or have some guidance e at the fire."

 

[12] 11. But when he came to [the fire f], he was called: "O Moses!"

 

[13] 12. [God be glorified said:] "I AM your Lord, so take off your shoes; [for] you are [now] in the sacred valley [called] Tuva. g "

 

[14] 13. "I [Myself] have chosen you [for the apostle-hood]; so listen to [the words] revealed [to you.]"

 

[15] 14. "I AM GOD; there is no god [in the entire universe] but I [alone], so worship Me [O Moses], and perform the prayers [in which] to remember Me. h "

 

[16] 15. "The 'Hour' [of mans death] is [inevitably] coming; My design is to keep its [time] i hidden;

[Then God be glorified explained about the purpose of concealing or hiding it:]

so that every soul may [in the Next Life] be rewarded according to its endeavour. j "

 

[17] 16. "Therefore let not such as: believe not therein, but follows his own lusts, divert you from [believing in] the [Next Life and Judgment], lest you fall down!" k

 

[18] 17. "And what is that by your right hand, O Moses!"

 

[19] 18. [Moses] said: "It is my staff; on which I lean; with it I drive along my sheep, and in it I find other uses." l

 

[20] 19. [God] said: "Cast it m down, O Moses!"

 

[21] 20. So [Moses] cast it down [on the ground], and it was [then evident that it was] a snake, moving about [and that it was not any staff in fact.] n

 

[22] 21. [God be glorified ] said: "Take it and fear not. We shall restore it to its first state o."

 

[23] 22. "And put your hand in your armpit, [then take it out] to come out white [with radiation] without any disease [or skin depigmentation] to be another miracle."

 

[24] 23. "And that We shall show you [in the future some] of Our greatest miraclesp."

 

[25] 24. "Go to Pharaoh; he has waxed a tyrant."

 

9 a Moses son of Amram, and his mothers name is Jochebed.

9 b It means: Have you received and understood the story of Moses with Pharaoh, when it had been told to you in the previous Quran revelations, and how he resisted Pharaoh until he was victorious on him; therefore, be like him and resist the associaters, and so God will help you against them as did Moses become victorious on Pharaoh.

 

 

10 c To the side of Mount Hor (in Arabic in the Quran: Mount Tor) or Horeb; when he was travelling from the city of Midian to Egypt, together with his wife and his sons, and it was night.

10 d i.e. I see a fire.

10 e It means: Or I may have someone near the fire to guide me to the way; and it was night.

 

 

11 f He found an olive tree, flaming with fire, but the tree did not burn, so he stood astonished of that scene; at that time, he was called: "O Moses!" The sound issued from the tree.

 

 

12 g Which is an area in the wilderness of Sinai near Mount Hor (or Tor in Arabic); it became sacred because Abraham used to pray and worship God in it. So it became like the mosque; therefore, God be glorified said to Moses: Take off your shoes.

 

 

14 h By saying: Glory be to God!

Praise be to God!

and God is Most Great!

 

 

15 i i.e. He is about to conceal its time to people, till the time of approaching of their death appointment.

15 j i.e. so that every soul will in the Next Life be rewarded, according to what [good or evil] work it did in the life of the World.

That is because whoso denies the Next Life and Judgment, will abandon the righteous work, and will do major sins and so will lose. And whoso believes in the Next Life and Judgment, will avoid major sins and work righteousness and so will succeed.

 

16 k The meaning: If you do not believe in Next Life and Judgment, and do not worship me, and do not remember me in prayers and others, then you will lose and fall in the chastisement.

Although the addressing is to Moses, but in truth it is for all men responsible for their acts.

Tibrisy said in his book (Majma Al-Bayan): These ayat indicate that God be glorified spoke to Moses and His speech was created; because it was located in the tree and consisted of arranged letters.

God be glorified said in the Quran 21: 2, which means:

(No admonition comes to them from their Lord, recent, but they hear it while they are playing.) So the admonition is the Quran.

That is because some of Muslims said: The Quran is recent; while others said: It is eternal and not recent.

 

 

18 l The story [of the staff of Moses]

When Moses fulfilled the [eight years] deal with Jethro (or Reuel), and he set with his family from Midian to Egypt, he found in his way a staff, so he took it, but in truth it was not any staff, but was a snake, which God created special for Moses to be his miracle; it was long, thick, and had scales that covered its body; so when it wanted to sleep, it hid its head and tail inside the scales, like the turtle and the hedgehog, and then it will be like the staff; and if it wants to graze or tend [the sheep], it will take out its head and tail, so it will appear as a snake.

Therefore, God be glorified said: "And what is that by your right hand, O Moses!"

And Moses said: "It is my staff; on which I lean; with it I drive along my sheep, and in it I find other uses."

That is because Moses did not know that it was a snake, but he thought it was a staff; while God is Most knowing about it, because it was He Who had created it.

 

 

19 m So God be glorified did not say: Cast your staff, but He mentioned it by the implication and did not frankly call it staff, until Moses himself said: It is my staff.

 

 

20 n This is confirmed by what Sheikh Bahai said in his book (The Kashkool), he said: Hercules, king of the Byzantine, wrote to Moawiah some questions; one of those questions was about: four that were not formed in the loin of men nor in the wombs of women!

So Moawiah sent those questions to Ibin Abbas, who said in his reply: The four whom he asked about, were Adam, Eve, the staff of Moses and the ram with which He ransomed Ishmael.

 

21 o i.e. it will hide its head within its scales to be like the staff.

 

 

23 p Else than these two miracles.

 

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[26] 25. [Moses] said: "My Lord, let me be delighted [with this mission a.]"

 

[27] 26. " And let my task be easy for me b."

 

[28] 27. "And remove the impediment from my speech."

 

[29] 28. "So that [Pharaoh kinsmen] may understand my words c."

 

[30] 29. "Appoint for me, out of my folk, an assistant:"

 

[31] 30. [who is] Aaron, my brother."

 

[32] 31. "Back me with him. d "

 

[33] 32. "And join him with me in my task."

 

[34] 33. "So that we may so much exalt You e [above having any associate.]"

 

[35] 34. "And that we may so much mention You [with celebration and praise f]."

 

[36] 35. "For You are All-Seeing of our [acts.] g "

 

25 a So that I may carry it out with determination and firm will.

 

26 b i.e. Prepare for me the means of success and achieving the aim.

 

 

 

28 c Because he had a difficulty in uttering the letter R.

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 d i.e. Support me by him to carry out this duty.

 

 

 

33 e i.e. We should glorify and exalt You, before Pharaoh and his people, that they may abandon worshipping the idols.

 

 

34 f Before them, so they may comply with Your obedience.

 

35 g i.e. You are All-Seeing our deeds, and You know will carry out this task or neglect it.

 

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[37] 36. "[God] said: "You are granted, Moses, your petition."

 

[38] 37. "And for another time, We have [now] shown you favor [as had We done before.]"

 

[39] 38. "When We revealed to [Jochebed] your mother [concerning you] as is it revealed [to prophets.]"

 

[Then God be glorified explained about such revelation by His saying:]

[40] 39. [Revealing to her:] "Cast him in the arka, then cast him in the river, and the river will bring him to the shore b; (an enemy of mine and of his) will take him c, and I cast loveliness on you d that such [acts] should be done under My observation. e "

 

[41] 40. "When [Miriam] your sister walked along [watching about your outcome], and said [to Pharaohs household]: 'May I guide you to one who will take charge of him [: nursing and rearing him] f?'

So We returned you to your mother, so that she may be delighted [with your return to her], and may not grieve [for your absence.]

You also killed a man g, but We saved you from the worry [which inflicted you because of the killing], and We tried you in various ways h, then you tarried for [eight i] years among the people of Midian j, then you, O Moses, have now come according to a decree k."

 

[42] 41. "And I have prepared you for My service." l

 

[43] 42. "Go, therefore, you and your brother, with My [nine] miracles, and relent not m in inviting [people] to Me."

 

[44] 43. "Go, both of you, to Pharaoh; for he has become arrogant."

 

[45] 44. "And speak to him gently n that he may receive admonition or fear [of Gods punishment o.]"

 

39 a It means: Place him in an oblong papyrus basket coated with tar and pitch. Then cast this ark on the water in the Nile of Egypt.

39 b It means: the wind and waves will drive it to the shore near the palace of Pharaoh; and then

39 c i.e. Pharaoh who is an enemy of God and enemy of Moses; because the fortune-tellers told him that a boy of the Children of Israel will born who will cause destruction of your kingdom.

Then when she placed him in the ark, and cast him in the Nile, the waves drove him to the shore near the palace of Pharaoh, and she sent his sister to watch the ark; that was after having hidden him from spies, and suckled him for three months. But when she was afraid lest they should know about him, she cast him in the river.

And Pharaohs daughter went out walking by the river bank, when she saw the ark, and said to her servant: Bring it out of the water, so that we may see what it contains.

So when she took it out, she saw a nice looking infant child, sleeping in it; so she loved him and took him to her mother, and they determined to grow him. So they brought the nursing women, but he did not accept them, because he used to suck of his mothers breast.

39 d It means: I made you lovely to them, so that they would take and grow you up.

39 e It means: his birth, his secret suckling for three months, placing him in the papyrus basket, casting him in the river, and the coming of Pharaohs daughter to take him; all this was according to Gods will and under His care.

 

 

40 f Therefore, they agreed about that, so she brought her mother, and Pharaohs daughter said to her: Suckle this boy for us, and I shall give you your recompense.

40 g One of the Copts: [Egyptians], and that was when you became a man.

40 h i.e. We tried you with the killing [of the Copt] and the fear, in order to leave Egypt and go to Midian, so that We would move you to what We want.

40 i The indication that they were eight years, not ten, is His saying be glorified in the Quran 28: 29, which means:

(Then, when Moses had accomplished the term [of the eight years.]),

and He did not say: accomplished the two terms; which was the term agreed upon between Shu'aib [Reuel] and Moses.

40 j The town of Midian is situated in the Wilderness of Sinai, to the south of Palestine.

The tribe of Midian divided into two divisions: some of them believed in Prophet Shu'aib, so they got away from their people and were saved from the earthquake, and some did not believe and they stayed in their place, so the earthquake seized them and they died.

This incident was after the people of Lot, and before the coming of Moses.
Therefore, (among the people of Midian) means: with the believers among the people of Midian who were saved of the earthquake and their seed who remained to the time of Moses.

40 k Concerning the time decreed for you: according to your age, when you have attained the age of forty, and the time is now due to destroy Pharaoh and save, by your hand, the Children of Israel from his slavery.

 

 

41 l i.e. I made what have been done to you: the changes from one condition to another; all of that was for Me.

It means: in order to convey my message and to save the Children of Israel from the slavery to Pharaoh, and to guide them to My religion and My worshipping.

 

42 m i.e. do not neglect in conveying My admonition to the Children of Israel, neither in guiding them to the way of the truth.

 

 

44 n i.e. but not roughly.

 

 

44 o And he may then comply with the truth.

 

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[46] 45. [Moses and Aaron] said: "Our Lord, we fear he may transgress against us [so that he may revile or humiliate us] or wax arrogant [so that he may kill us.]"

 

[47] 46. [God] said: "Fear not; [for] I AM with you [by helping you], hearing [his words a] and seeing [his acts.]"

 

[48] 47. "So go [both of you] to him, and say: "We [both] are the messengers of your Lord [Who sent us to you]; so release with us the Children of Israel, and chastise them not [with hard labor]; we have brought you [the staff as] a miracle from your Lord; and safety [from punishment] be for him who follows the guidance!"

 

[49] 48. "It is revealed to us that the punishment shall be on him who denies [the miracles of his Lord] and turns away [from His messengers.]"

 

 

 

 

46 a Which he will say to you.

 

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[50] 49. [Pharaoh] said: "O Moses, who, then, is the Lord of both of you?"

 

[51] 50. [Moses] said: "Our Lord is He Who gives to every [material] thing [whether it is plant, animal or man] its [ethereal] form a [: the spirit, which is identical to its shape], then He guides [it to its livelihood and the means of getting it b]"

 

[52] c 51. [Pharaoh] said: "What then is the case of the generations of old [: that they were not punished, but they became dust d ?"

 

[53] 52. [Moses] said: "The knowledge of them is with my Lord e; [while their sins are written] in the book [of their deeds]; my Lord errs not [so that He may punish the non-guilty], nor forgets [so that He may leave the guilty without punishment.]"

 

[54] 53. "Who has appointed the earth to be prepared for you e e, and has threaded roads for you therein f; and has sent down [rain] water from the sky, and thereby We have brought forth various kinds of plants g."

 

[55] 54. "[O people] eat [of their fruits] and feed your cattle [of their plant]. Surely, that h indicates signs i to those wise men who forbid [from evil.]"

 

[56] 55. From the [earth] We have created you [people,] then We shall return you back into it j, then shall get you out of it another time k.

 

50 a Which is the spirit. So the word thing is applied to the matter.

The meaning: He gives to every living body its life by introducing the spirit within it, so it becomes living.

50 b So that the animal: He guided by the instinct, and man: He guided by the mind and reason.

 

 

51 c When Moses said: The punishment shall be on him who denies [the miracles of his Lord] and turns away [from His messengers.]", Pharaoh replied to him:

51 d But Pharaoh did not know that the soul is the true man, and that the body is not more than a mold in which the soul forms. And he did not know that the punishment and the prosperity will be for the soul in particular, not for the body; and therefore, he objected to Moses with these words. So Moses answered him:

 

 

52 e It means: Souls are perpetual and do not vanish, and their punishment is up to God: if He likes He punish them in the Barzakh [or the Afterlife] world, and if He likes He punish them on Doomsday.

 

 

53 e e i.e. He made it prepared for agriculture, dwelling, livelihood, traveling and others.

53 f i.e. He let roads be easy for you, between mountains, valleys and wilderness from one city to another.

53 g i.e. plants different in color, taste and smell.

 

 

54 h i.e. the preparing of the earth for agriculture, the sending of the rain from the space and the growing of the plant from the earth.

54 i i.e. clear indications of the existence of a Maker of the earth and the rain and a Creator of it and of these plants and cattle. Therefore, all these are indicative signs for people of wisdom and reason, who forbid people from doing the forbidden things; it means: those who enjoin righteousness and forbid evil.

 

 

55 j It means: After your death, We return to the earth, your bodies which We created from the earth itself.

55 k i.e. We shall get you from the earth to the space; and that will be on Doomsday, when the earth will tear up to become meteorites, and the gathering-together will be in the space.

So the first getting out is the getting out of the soul from the matter, i.e. from the body, and the second getting out is its getting out of the earth to the space.

 

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[57] 56. And We did show [Pharaoh] all Our [nine] miracles a, but he denied [them] and refused [to convert b.]

 

[58] 57. [Pharaoh] said: "Moses, have you come to drive us out of our country by your magic?" c

 

[59] 58. "But we can surely show for you [some] magic similar to it d; so fix an appointment between us and you e, which we may not break, nor do you [Moses] either; [at] a place that is agreeable [by both of us.]" f

 

[60] 59. [Moses] said: "Your appointment is on the day of the Feast of Ornamentation, and let the people be assembled at forenoon time."

 

[61] 60. So Pharaoh turned away [from the belief g], gathered [the sorcerers:] his wicked guile [against Moses] then he brought [the sorcerers h.]

 

[62] 61. Moses said to the [wizards]: "Woe to you; forge not a lie against God i, lest He drive you out [from your homes j] by punishment. The forger [against God] will certainly suffer failure.

 

 

56 a Which were the staff, the white hand, the locust, the insect, the blood, the frog and others which have been detailed in the Quran, 7: 133.

56 b And comply with the truth, and release the Children of Israel.

 

 

 

57 c It means: You want to take the Children of Israel to fight us with them, and to defeat us then drive us out of our land with killing and captivity, then to seize our possessions; but anyhow your magic and sorcery does not influence us.

 

 

 

58 d i.e. similar to your magic.

58 e For the gathering of people and the sorcerers on the stated day.

58 f It means: And similarly, we should mutually agree about the place [in addition to the time] which we should not change, neither we nor you, [Moses!]

Therefore, Moses agreed about that.

 

 

 

60 g Even after all such admonitions and instructions, and he did not comply with the truth.

60 h To the place about which the two parties agreed, and on the appointed day.

 

 

 

61 i By attributing My miracles to the sorcery and magic, and by deluding people with your sorcery and deceit; but you must show the truth to people, and must not lie to them.

61 j And destroy you by the torrent or earthquake and others.

 

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[63] 62. So the chiefs of the [wizards] disputed [among themselves] and made private discussion. a

 

[64] 63. The [chiefs] said [to the wizards]: "These two are certainly [expert] magicians [and they are not any prophets as you think]; their objective is to drive you out of your country with their magic, and to do away with your most ideal system [which is better than all the religious systems b]."

 

[65] 64. "Do therefore all your tricks [of your magic], then bring [the snakes] in array c; for, today, whoso gains the upper hand will surely prosper. d "

 

[66] 65. [The wizards] said: "O Moses, either you throw [your staff on the ground first], or let us be the first to throw."

 

[67] 66. [Moses] said: "[Be you the first to] throw!" [so they threw] and, behold, it seemed to him, by means of their magic, that their ropes and staffs were [snakes] moving [on the ground.] e

 

[68] 67. And Moses conceived some fear within himself. f

 

[69] 68. We said [to Moses]: "Fear not; it is you who will overcome."

 

[70] 69. "Throw down what is in your right hand g; and it will grab [with its mouth] what [magic] they have devised h.

Surely, what they have devised is only a magician's trick i, and the magician succeeds not whatever [trick] he may bring about [with his magic.]" j

 

 

62 a The meaning: When the wizards heard the words of Moses, they disputed with their chiefs, and they said [to each other]: Such words are not the words of any wizard; so if we overcome him, then he is a wizard; but if he overcomes us, then he is a prophet and we should follow him.

 

 

 

63 b The meaning: They want to do away with your religious system, and establish their system instead of yours.

 

 

 

64 c let your snakes and serpents be arrayed; in order to frighten Moses.

64 d i.e. whoso overcomes his companion will be the successful.

 

 

66 e The meaning: neither were they snakes in reality, nor did they move on the ground; but one who looked at them, deemed that they moved on the ground.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

67 f It means: When Moses saw that, he conceived some fear; because his staff was one, while their staffs were numerous, so he feared lest their staffs might overcome his one.

 

 

 

69 g It means: the snake which you hold by your right hand; in fact God be glorified did not say: Throw down your staff; because He knew it was a snake but not any staff.

69 h It means: it will grab or engulf the ropes and staffs with its mouth and cut them up into many pieces.

69 i It means: That, which they have made, is only a delusion and trickery; and the ropes did not in fact change into snakes, but only the one looking at them deemed them snakes.

69 j Because the truth disproves it, and the reality exposes it.
Therefore, Moses then cast the snake which was by his hand in the form of a staff, so it protruded its head out of its scales, and opened its mouth, with its snoring and blowing; it was thick and long, and it came to those ropes and staffs to grab them with its mouth and cut them up with its teeth and throw them on the ground; so people were afraid and ran away from it.

 

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[71] 70. [At that instant] the magicians prostrated themselves in adoration [to God]; said they: "We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses."

 

[72] 71. [Pharaoh] said: "You believe [and agree] with him before I give you permission? Surely this [Moses] must be your boss who has taught you the magic [and so you have believed in him!]

Therefore I will surely cut off the hands of some of you and the feet of others, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of palm trees a; so will you know for certain, which of us [I b or the God of Moses c, can afflict] with the more severe and the more lasting punishment!"

 

[73] 72. [The wizards] said [to Pharaoh]: "We will not prefer you [Pharaoh] to the manifest evidences to the [truthfulness and prophet-hood of Moses] brought to us, [and the evidences about God] Who created us; so do [to us] what [torture] you want to do [to us]; you only have control of this Worldly life d."

 

[74] 73. "We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our mistakes and the magic to which you obliged us [against Moses]; God['s reward] is better [for us than the World] and more lastinge."

 

[75] 74. Anyone coming guilty to his Lord; for him will be Hell, where he will neither die [and so will get rid of it] nor will live [any prosperous life, but he will be punished with various kinds of punishment.]

 

[76] 75. And anyone will come to Him a believer [in God and His prophets], having done righteous works; for such will be the high ranks [in the Gardens.]

 

[77] 76. Seven Gardens, with rivers flowing below their [trees], wherein they will abide forever; such is the reward of those who purify themselves [from sins f].

 

 

 

71 a i.e. I shall nail your hands on the palm trunks, and leave you hanged on them.

71 b I for your belief without my permission.

71 c or the God of Moses for your forsaking of the belief.

 

 

 

72 d The meaning: You only have power over the bodies, but you have no such power over the souls, and sooner or later we shall go to the Next Afterlife, whether you kill us or do not kill us.

 

 

 

73 e Because the life of the World is temporary, and will end, while the Next Life will last forever.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76 f i.e. those who avoid the sins and keep up to the obedience.

 

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[Then God be glorified told about the Children of Israel, and He said:]

[78] 77. We revealed to Moses

[after he had shown to Pharaoh the nine miracles but Pharaoh had not believed, neither had his people]:

"Lead My servants [: the Children of Israel, in the Exodus, out of the land of Egypt, in a night journey], and strike [,with your staff, the water and] a dry path [will be opened] for them in the sea, and you fearing not [of being drowned], nor of being overtaken [by Pharaoh.]" a

 

[79] 78. Then Pharaoh followed them with his hosts and there covered them of the sea that which covered them, [and which you have heard and known about in the previous ayat.]

 

[80] 79. So Pharaoh led his people astray [away from the truth], and did not guide them [to the right way. b]

 

 

77 a So Moses and his people entered through the sea.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

79 b As had he promised them with his saying, as in the Quran 40: 29, which means:

(Pharaoh said [then], "I only tell you what I myself see correct, and I only guide you to the way of rectitude.")

 

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[Then God be glorified started to address Jews and He reminded them with His bounties, and He said:]

[81] 80. O Children of Israel, We saved you from your enemy [Pharaoh and others],

and We promised [to send down to] you [the Tablets on which We inscribed the Torah a, and so Moses brought it down from] the right side b of the Mount [Sinai c],

and We sent down on you the 'manna' [for many years] and the quail [in some seasons.] d

 

[82] 81. [And We said to you:] "Eat of the good and wholesome [foods] We have provided you with, but exceed not therein e, lest My wrath [: the plague] comes on you [if you contradict my commands]; on whomsoever My wrath comes, he will perish for certain."

 

[83] 82. "And surely I AM All-Forgiving to him who repents [from the disobedience], believes [in God and His messengers], works righteous work then is rightly guided [to give the Zakat-alms and to expend in the way of God.]"

 

 

80 a i.e. the Ten Words or the Ten Commandments.

80 b It means: on the right side of the road leading to Egypt, and to the right of Moses, while he travelled from Midian to Egypt.

80 c Or Mount Tor in Arabic, which is also Mount Hor or Horeb in Hebrew, on which Moses talked to his Lord in private.

80 d We explained about the 'manna' and the quail, in the interpretation of the Quran, chapter 2.

 

 

81 e i.e. dont take of the manna more than what you eat.

 

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[When Moses went to the mountain to bring the Tablets, God be glorified said addressing him:]

[84] 83. "But what has hastened you [to come] on before your people, O Moses?a "

 

[85] 84. "They are following my way b ", [Moses] said, "and I have hastened [to come] to You, my Lord, in order that You may be well-pleased [with them c.]"

 

[86] 85. [God be glorified ] said: "We have tried your people in your absence d. The Samaritan has misguided them e."

 

 

83 a Dont you fear that they may rebel and apostatize in your absence?

 

84 b i.e. they are my companions, who work according to my program, and I dont think they will apostatize.

84 c If they work according to the Torah which You inscribe and prescribe to them.

 

85 d And found them upholding not the monotheism, but desiring to worship the idols.

85 e He made for them a gold calf which they started to worship.

 

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[87] 86. Then Moses went back to his people [from the mountain carrying the Tablets of stone on which God inscribed the Torah, and was] very angry and sorrowful a; he said:

"My people, did not your Lord promise you a fair promise? Or did the time [of my absence] then appear too long for you? Or did you desire that wrath should come on you from your Lord [because of what you have done], that you failed in your tryst with me [to act righteously in my absence?]"

 

[88] 87. They said: "We did not fail in our tryst with you of our own accord b, but we were loaded with the [guilt] burden of [stealing] the [gold] ornament of the people [of Egypt], and we cast all that [in the fire] as also did the Samaritan cast [his gold in the fire.]"c

 

[89] 88. Then he brought forth to them the image of a calf d which lowed; so they e said: "This is your god and the god of Moses, but [Moses] forgot." f

 

86 a So when he reached to them, and saw the calf, his anger was kindled, so he cast the Tablets on the ground so they broke up, and he shouted at his people:

 

87 b i.e. the Levites who did not worship the calf said: We could not turn these [men] from worshipping the calf; for we forbade them, but they did not abstain.

87 c That is because: when they departed from Egypt, they borrowed the gold ornaments form the Copts, to use them in their feast day, then to return them to their owners, but they did not return them back.

Therefore, the Samaritan made a large crucible, and made a mold for a statue of a calf, and he kindled fire inside a hole in the ground, in which he put the crucible, then he said to the Children of Israel: The ornaments which you took from the Copts are filth and unclean, so cast them in the fire in order to be purified [by the fire], and he too cast a handful of gold coins in the fire.

When the Children of Israel saw that, they brought the gold ornaments which they took from the Copts and cast all that in the fire; then when the gold melted, he poured it in the mold after he dismissed them.

Next day he produced for them a calf of gold, in which he had inserted something, which let it produce a sound like the cow sound.

 

88 d i.e. a statue of calf, having no spirit. So the Samaritan said to the Children of Israel: The God of Moses said to him: Dont come you to the mountain; I will come to you, but Moses forgot and went to the Mount Tor [: Hor, Horeb or Sinai], seeking after his Lord, and his Lord [Himself] has now come; and here it is the God of you and of Moses.

88 e i.e. the Samaritan and his followers.

88 f So when they saw it, they rejoiced with it and started to dance, clap hands and sacrifice the sacrifices for it.

Aaron rebuked and advised them, and said to them: You are only tried with it; your Lord is the Most Gracious, and God is not of gold.

They said: "We will not cease", they said, "to cleave to it, until Moses returns back to us."

 

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[Then God be glorified said:]

[90] 89. Didn't they see, then, that it returned no saying to them a and possessed for them neither harm nor any profit?

 

[91] 90. Aaron had told them before [they worshipped the calf]: "My people, you are only being tried thereby [so dont worship it]; and surely, your Lord is the Most Gracious, so follow me [concerning my words] and obey my order."

 

[92] 91. "We will not cease", they said, "to cleave to its [worship], until Moses returns to us [from the Mount.]"

 

[93] 92. [Moses] said: "Aaron, what prevented you [from instructing and preventing them from worshipping the calf] when you saw them gone astray [away from the truth, and when they worshipped the calf]"

 

[94] 93."That you did not follow me? Have you then disobeyed my order?"

 

[95] 94. [Aaron] said: "Son of my mother, take me not by the beard or the head! I was afraid lest [I should do anything, and they would then divide and] you would say: "You have divided the Children of Israel, and you did not observe my word."

 

 

89 a It means: the calf did not speak to them.

 

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[Then Moses directed his address to the Samaritan:]

[96] 95. [Moses] said: "What was your case, O Samaritan? a "

 

[97] 96. [The Samaritan] said: "I saw what the [Children of Israel] did not see b, and I grasped a handful of the [ancient] relics [: the gold coins c from the time] of the messenger [Salih], and I cast it [into the fire d]; for thus did my soul suggest e to me."

 

[98] 97. [Moses] said [to the Samaritan]: "Then go away; you will have [a disease] in [your] life [to say:] "Dont touch [me] f; and you have an appointment [for chastisement] that you will not escape.

Moreover, look to your god to which you did cleave, we will certainly burn it, then scatter [its particles] abroad in the sea." g

 

[99] 98."Your god is only God: there is no god but He [alone]: He comprehends all things in His knowledge h."

 

[100] 99. Thus do We relate to you [Mohammed] some stories of the past [nations] i, and We have given you [the Quran including] an admonition from Us [to people.]

 

[101] 100. Whosoever turns away from it [and does not believe in it], he shall on Judgment Day bear a [heavy] burden [of sins.]

 

[102] 101. Abiding in the [disgrace and punishment of the burden of sins] j an evil load will it be for them on Judgment Day k.

 

95 a i.e. what induced you to do such an act?

 

 

96 b i.e. I found something which the Children of Israel did not see.

That is because he found some ancient relics: gold coins buried under the ground, and found with that a gold statue of a small calf, dating from the time of Prophet Salih.

Then Satan came and suggested to him and said: Look to this statue; it is very beautiful; can you make another one similar to it? If you make one bigger than it and leave it with the Children of Israel, it will be a memorial of you and a perpetuation of your name forever!

Therefore, his soul induced and deceived him, until he determined to make a gold calf bigger than the one which he found.

96 c It means: he grasped a handful of those gold coins which he found.

The Samaritan was one of the people of Pharaoh: one of the wizards who believed in Moses; he went out together with the Children of Israel in their Exodus; and he was a goldsmith.

96 d Together with the gold ornaments of the Children of Israel, and I made out of that a calf statue.

96 e i.e. my soul made the evil good and fair-seeming to me.

 

 

97 f God punished him with leprosy, so when anyone approached him, he said: Dont touch [me.]"

That is because the statement of the leper in the Torah is to be isolated from people, and anyone touches him will be defiled; therefore, he says: Dont touch [me]", in order to know that he is a leper, and so they will not approach him, neither will they be defiled with him.

97 g Moses commanded them to kindle fire around the calf statue until it would melt and stick to the ground, then he commanded them to file it with the file and to scatter its particles on the sea water.

 

 

98 h i.e. He knows about all things, from every aspect, and their description and details.

 

 

99 i i.e. as did We reltate to you about the story of Moses and his people, as such will We relate to you in the future about the stories of the past nations.

 

 

101 j That will be in the Barzakh world [or the Afterlife.]

101 k i.e. their conditions will be bad on account of their loads [of sins.]

 

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[103] 102. On the day when the 'horn' a will be blown; on that day We shall congregate the guilty: black [-faced.]

 

[104] 103. Murmuring among themselves [in whispers b]: "You have only tarried ten [of the nights of the Next Life.]

 

[Then God be glorified said:]

[105] 104. We know best what they will say c, when the man of best opinion among them will say: "You have only tarried for [no more than] one of the [Next Life] days." d

 

102 a The Horn has been discussed in details in my book The Universe and the Quran . It is the cold crust which will form on the sun surface at the end of its life; the blowing will be from its inner part because of the gases which emerge from a crack in the crust, and such incident will produce a great sound.

 

103 b i.e. they talk among themselves with low hushed sound; it means: their voices are not hearable; so that they say to each other: For how long have you tarried in the chastisement of the Barzakh world (or the Afterlife)?

The others will say: several years.

Some others will say: "You have tarried [in the chastisement] only for ten [of the nights of the Next Life.]

 

104 c i.e. it is not as do they say.

104 d It means: Whatever your chastisement in the Barzakh may last, it will never be equivalent to one of the days of Doomsday and its chastisement.

 

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[106] 105. They ask you [Mohammed] about the mountains [of Mecca, on that day.] Say [to them]: "My Lord, will smash them [into scattered dust.]"

 

[107] 106. So He will leave it as a level plain [in which there will be no hilla or valleyb.]

 

[108] 107. Wherein you will see neither any elevation nor any depression. c

 

106 a Or mountain.

106 b Or hole.

 

107 c That is because the earth will stop its axial rotation, when the heat in its core will finish, so that in one side of it there will be a perpetual day which will not be succeeded by night; and in the other side there will be a perpetual night which will not be followed by day.

Therefore, the heat will increase in the day side, and such heat will be sufficient to burn and crumble rocks; because most of mountains are formed from calcium carbonate; so when it is heated the carbon dioxide gas will go away, and the calcium oxide (lime) will remain, which is a white powder with some yellowness.

Second: The heat in the core of the earth is the reason for the gravity; therefore, when it will finish and the earth core will become cold, then the gravity of the earth will end, and in such case the parts of the mountains will be dismantled, and the mountains will be exposed to the factors of the denudation and erosion, so that the wind will scatter them to seas and depressions, and by that the earth will become plain land with neither any elevation nor any depression.

In my book The Universe and the Quran it has been explained that mountains will be dispersed

 

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[109] 108. On that [Dooms]day they will directly follow [the call of the angel Israfil:] the 'Summoner' a, deviating not from him b; and voices will be hushed before [God] Most Gracious, so that you will not hear anything more than whispering c.

 

[110] 109. On that day, the intercession [by any prophet] d will not avail [any of people], save [the intercession of] whom the Most Gracious gives leavee, and whose speech [God] approves f.

 

[111] 110. He knows what [of the acts of prophets g they forwarded] before their hands and what [religious ways and programs they left] behind them, while the [prophets] cannot comprehend the knowledge about Him [and about His essence and what secrets are within Himself h.]

 

[112] 111. And [all] the notables [: kings and chiefs] will be humbled [to God] i the Ever-Living [Who dies not], the Disposer [in the affairs of the universe and creatures.]

And anyone bears [the burden of] wronging [people] will certainly fail.j

 

[113] 112. And whoso works righteous works, being a believer [in God and His messengers and in the Next Life], he should not fear the oppression [of devils in the afterlife k] nor any curtailment [of his wage on Doomsday l.]

 

108 a Who will summon them towards him.

108 b i.e. they will not deviate right or left, but will directly go up towards him in the space.

This is like His saying be glorified in the Quran 17: 52, which means:

(On the day when he [: the angel Israfil] will call you [for Judgment and Requital] and you will respond, with His praise, and will think that you tarried [in the World] only for little time.)

108 c The whispering is the hidden speech; it means: the low voice which only the second person will hear. In fact, their speaking will be by whispering because they will be ethereal souls, and souls cannot speak with any loud and audible voice.

And the gathering-together will be in the space.

 

 

109 d [Or angel, saint or patron.]

109 e It means: the intercession of the prophets will avail only the monotheists about whom God is pleased.

109 f It means: On condition that such man being truthful in his words, devoting his religion to God alone, and associating not anyone in the worship of his Lord; therefore, the intercession of the intercessors will avail such man.

 

 

110 g i.e. the intercessors.

110 h The indication of this is the saying of Jesus son of Mary as in the Quran 5: 116, which means:

(You know what [secret] is in myself but I know not what [intention] is in Yourself.)

 

 

111 i The meaning: On that day, kings and chiefs will be humbled to the might of God, and they will yield to His will and judgment.

111 j i.e. Anyone, wrongs people and plunders their rights, will be disappointed and will lose the reward for his work.

 

 

112 k In the Barzakh world (following death), because the angels will guard him.

112 l By taking his righteous work and giving it to others, if he does not wrong people concerning their rights.

 

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[114] 113. Thus a have We sent it down [as] an Arabic Quran, and displayed therein the threat b, in order that they may ward off [the association and the disobedience], or the [Quran] may renew an admonition for them c.

 

[115] 114. Then exalted be God the True Sovereign! d

But hasten not to [recite] the Quran before its revelation is completed to you [Mohammed] e,

and say: "My Lord, increase me of the knowledge. f "

 

113 a i.e. as have We told you about the news of Doomsday and its portents, thus have We revealed it an Arabic Quran so that they may understand it.

113 b i.e. and We repeated in it the threatening many times in many ways.

113 c And they may take lesson from the past nations, and so they may abandon the peers and may not worship them.

 

 

114 d i.e. His attributes are exalted above the attributes of created beings whom they considered as associates of God.

114 e i.e. Dont hasten to recite the Quran before Gabrile ends his conveying of the Quran. That is because the Prophet salam to him started to recite together with the reciting of Gabriel, fearing lest he might forget it.

114 f About what you revealed to Your prophets in the heavenly books and about their stories.

 

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[Then after this warning and threatening, God be glorified reminded them about the story of Adam and his going out of the garden, so He said:]

[116] 115. And certainly We had given a commandment to Adam before a, but [Adam] forgot b; and We did not find in him any determination [to what We commanded him.] c

 

[Then God be glorified started to detail the story of Adam which He gave in summary, and He warned them of Iblies (: Satan), so He said:]

[117] 116. [Mention to them the story of Adam and Iblies] when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves to Adam", they all prostrated themselves but not Iblies; he refused [to prostrate himself.]

 

[118] 117. Therefore, We said: "Adam, surely this [Iblies or Satan] is an enemy to you and to your wife [Eve], so let him not drive you both out of the garden [with his suggestions and deception] so that you will toil d."

 

[119] 118. "It is [vouchsafed] to you [Adam] in the [garden] neither to hunger e, nor to be naked f."

 

[120] 119. "neither to thirst therein g, nor to suffer the sun's heat h."

 

[121] 120. But the devil whispered to him, and said [with his whispering]: "O Adam, shall I show you the tree of enduring i? And [this garden is] a possession that does not waste away j."

 

[122] 121. Then they [both Adam and Eve] ate of the [blackberry tree], so their shame became apparent to them [after their clothes were torn by the spikes of the tree k], and they started patching on themselves [: on their clothes l] with some leaves of the garden m; Adam did disobey his Lord n and deceive [his wife Eve o.]

 

[123] 122. Then his Lord chose him p, and accepted his repentance, and guided him q.

 

[124] 123. [Afterwards God] said [to Adam and Eve]: "Get down [from the garden r], both of you, altogether s, out of it.

You will be an enemy of each other t.

But if guidance from Me comes to you u, then whosoever follows My guidance v shall not go astray w, neither shall he be wretched x."

 

[125] 124. But whoso turns away from My admonition, then there will be for him a hard living [in the Afterlife], and on Doomsday We shall bring him to the gathering together blind [to the exit out of Hell.]

 

[126] 125. He [shall] say: "My Lord, why have you brought me blind to the gathering together [of the Next Life], while I had sight before [in the life of the World] y?"

 

[127] 126. [The angel will] say z: "Thus a a [it must be; because] when Our revelations reached you, you forsook them b b; so in like manner this day will you be forsaken c c."

 

[128] 127. Thus d d do We recompense him who exceeds [in sins] and believes not in the revelations of his Lord; and surely the punishment of the Next Life [after Doomsday] will be more severe and more lasting [than the punishment of the Barzakh (i.e. the Afterlife.)]

 

115 a That the Devil (or Satan) should not drive him out of the garden by deceiving him to approach the tree and to eat of its fruit.

115 b The words of God that this Iblies or Satan is an enemy of you and your wife.

115 c This also includes a threatening to the people of Mecca, which means: if they do not repent and refrain from worshipping the idols, then We will disperse them and drive them out of Mecca, as did We drive Adam out of the garden, when he disobeyed his Lords command.

 

 

 

 

117 d i.e. you will be tired.

 

 

 

118 e Because of its ample fruits.

118 f Because of the cattle that move about in the garden, so that you can make clothes from their wool and leather.

 

 

 

119 g Because if its water-springs and water-falls.

119 h Because of its numerous trees, and its temperate climate.

 

 

 

 

120 i so if you eat of it, you will stay forever in this garden, and none may drive you out of it.

120 j And will not disappear.

 

 

 

 

121 k It means: the shame of Adam appeared to Eve, as did the shame of Eve appear to Adam; because Adam had not made sexual intercourse with her before that time.

121 l Without taking off their clothes.

121 m It means: with the leaves of the fig tree.

121 n By approaching the tree and eating of its fruit.

121 o By praising its fruit, so that she too ate of the berry of the tree.

The implication of the story is that God be glorified warns people of following Iblies [or Satan] lest he should prevent them from going into Pradise in the Next Life, as did he drive their parents out of the garden in the life of the World.

 

 

 

 

122 p For the prophet-hood.

122 q To the words with which he prayed God, and so He accepted his repentance.

 

 

 

123 r Which was on a mountain.

123 s It means: Adam, Eve, the cattle and the birds which were on that mountain; because the water which watered its trees, found another route inside the mountain and started to spring at its lower part. Moreover, some seeds of those trees fell in the valley and grew, so that the trees, rivers and vegetation appeared in that valley because of the water falling from the mountain and issuing from the springs which later on sprung in its lower part.

While the trees on the mountains: they dried up, and neither fruit for eating nor water for drinking remained on the mountain; so Adam complained to his Lord of his hunger and thirst; therefore, God be glorified said: Go down of it to the plain land, i.e. to the valley, where you will find what you eat and drink; so they altogether went down to the land below the mountain.

123 t So the sons of Adam started to be enemy of each other, and Iblies (or Satan) became their enemy who wanted to destroy and torment them.

123 u By means of the prophets and messengers [or apostles.]

123 v Brought by the messengers.

123 w In the life of the World.

123 x In the Next Life.

 

 

 

125 y i.e. I had been able to see all things.

 

 

 

 

126 z Answering him.

126 a a i.e. as did We tell you in the life of the World, by the tongue of the messengers (or apostles), and say to you: If you do not believe in the revelations of your Lord, you will be gathered-together blind; and as did We warn you, thus have We fulfilled [the promise.]

126 b b Because you turned away from them.

126 c c So we will turn away from you, whatever you may pray us to save you from the chastisement.

 

 

 

 

127 d d i.e. like the reward of the one turning away from Our revelations, thus do We reward the one who exceeds in the disobedience and believes not in the revelations of his Lord, brought by His messengers.

 

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[129] 128. Has not [the Quran] explained to thema how many generations b [of those who denied the apostles] before them We had exterminated, in whose habitations they do now wander [but do not take lesson] c?

Surely, such [scene of the ruins] includes signs indicating [the extermination of their people] for wise men who forbid [from evil.]

 

[130] 129. [O Mohammed] had it not been that your Lord gave His word [to postpone their punishment, then the extermination] would have been inevitable d and [at] an appointed time e.

 

128 a It means: Hasnt the Quran explained to the people of Mecca.

128 b The Arabic word i.e. generation equals one century.

128 c It means: The people of Mecca walked and wandered about in the habitations of those deniers of the messengers, and that was when they travelled from Mecca to Syria for trading, and they passed by the habitations of Aad and Thamood and beheld their ruins, but they did not take lesson.

 

 

129 d For them as did We exterminate the past nations [who denied their apostles] before them.

129 e i.e. We would have given them a certain appointment of their extermination and the coming of the chastisement down upon them, but We do not want that.

 

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[131] 130. Then [O Mohammed] forbear patiently their words [of mockery and ridicule],

and celebrate the praises of your Lord, before the sun rise and before its setting, and at various parts of the day and night do [always] glorify [Him]: that you may be pleased [with Gods promise for you a.]

 

[There were born for the Prophet salam to him four sons, who died in their childhood; so afterwards when he saw the little sons of the associaters, he kept staring at them; therefore, His saying be glorified was revealed:]

[132] 131. But [O Mohammed] dont keep your staring at [the little sons] that We bestowed on some parents among the [associaters]; [such little sons being] the cheer of the life of this World b, that We may try them thereby c; the provision of your Lord [in the Next Life] is far better [for you] and more lasting [than the provision in the life of the World is. d]

 

[133] 132. [O Mohammed] enjoin the prayers on your family, and be constant in it; We ask of you no provision [for Our servants, but only to explain to them the way of the truth]; We provide [provision] for you e. And the final consequences will be for the [people that are] God-fearing.

 

 

130 a i.e. for that God promises you, Mohammed, with victory and prevailing and glory of the religion in the life of the World, and with honoring you and with your intercession for the monotheists among your nation in the Next Life.

 

 

131 b It means: The children are the lure and enjoyment of the life in the World; with whom their parents enjoy themselves.

131 c i.e. We try or test them with this enjoyment, to see they will be grateful or ungrateful.

131 d An aya similar to this one is in the Quran 15: 88.

[See also the interpretation of another aya 4:  29  the commentator.]

 

 

 

132 e So dont concern yourself with your provision and livelihood.

 

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[134] 133. They say: "Why shouldnt he bring to us a miracle a from his Lord?"

[So God be glorified replied to them, denied their words and said:]

But hasnt it come to them the clear explanation of [the story of the past nations] that is in the former Scripture [: the Torah, the Psalms and the Gospel?] b

 

[135] 134. Had We destroyed them with a punishment before it c, they would d have said: "Our Lord, if only You had sent to us a messenger e, we should certainly have followed Your revelations f before we were humbled g and put to shame h."

 

[136] 135. Say [Mohammed, to them:] "Each [party of us and you] is waiting i.

So wait j; for surely you shall know [later on] who are the fellows of the right way [of the truth] and who are guided [to it: we or you]?"

 

133 a Like the staff of Moses and the she-camel of Salih, and then we may believe in him.

133 b The meaning: Have not the stories of the past nations who demanded of their prophets the miracles, but when they were given what they demanded, they denied them and said: This is only a manifest magic. Therefore, We exterminated them according to their disbelief and denial, and the condition of the people of Mecca with their disbelief and denial is like the condition of the past nations.

The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 21: 6, which means:

(No city before them did believe, of those whom We destroyed; so will these [Meccans] believe [if We give them an objective miracle?])

 

 

134 c i.e. before sending Mohammed and revealing the Quran.

134 d After their death.

134 e To invite us to Your obedience, and to guide us to Your religion.

134 f i.e. we should certainly have worked according to the religious statements included in them.

134 g With the chastisement.

134 h In the Next Life.

 

 

135 i i.e. For we wait for the fulfillment of Gods promise to us to help us against you, and you wait for the turn of events against us.

135 j As much as you can.

 

By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 20 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)

 

 

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[61] 60.

[62] 61.

[63] 62.

[64] 63.

[65] 64.

[66] 65.

[67] 66.

[68] 67.

[69] 68.

[70] 69.

[71] 70.

[72] 71.

[73] 72.

[74] 73.

[75] 74.

[76] 75.

[77] 76.

[78] 77.

[79] 78.

[80] 79.

[81] 80.

[82] 81.

[83] 82.

[84] 83.

[85] 84.

[86] 85.

[87] 86.

[88] 87.

[89] 88.

[90] 89.

[91] 90.

[92] 91.

[93] 92.

[94] 93.

[95] 94.

[96] 95.

[97] 96.

[98] 97.

[99] 98.

[100] 99.

[101] 100.

[102] 101.

[103] 102.

[104] 103.

[105] 104.

[106] 105.

[107] 106.

[108] 107.

[109] 108. .

[110] 109. .

[111] 110. .

[112] 111. .

[113] 112. .

[114] 113.

[115] 114.

[116] 115.

[117] 116.

[118] 117.

[119] 118.

[120] 119.

[121] 120.

[122] 121.

[123] 122.

[124] 123.

[125] 124.

[126] 125.

[127] 126.

[128] 127.

[129] 128.

[130] 129.

[131] 130.

[132] 131.

[133] 132.

[134] 133.

[135] 134.

[136] 135.