Soora 30

[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)


The meaning


More explanation

[2] 1. Alif, Lam, Miem.

[These abbreviated Arabic letters mean:]

(Recite To them, O Mohammed!)a


[3] 2. The Greeks (: Room Byzantines b) have been overcome,


[4] 3. In the land [of Palestine] nearer [to you]; but they c, even after being defeated, will be victorious d,


[5] 4. Within a few yearse; [for] the determination [of the victory] is up to God, both before and after [the Greeks triumph;] on that day f the believers will rejoice,


[6] 5. In the help of Godg; He helps whomsoever He pleases; [for] He is the All-Mighty, the Most Wise.


[7] 6. [That] is the promise of God; [and] God never breaks His promise, but most of people h do not know i.


[8] 7. They [only] know some of the outer appearance of the life of this World j, but about the Next Life they are heedless.k


1 a It has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran, soora 2.





2 b That is the Byzantine kingdom; their religion was the Christianity; and there was fighting between them and the Persian, when the Persian defeated them and conquered Palestine; the Persian were Magians worshipping the fire and idols. Quraish had a friendship with some Persians, while Muslims had a friendship with the Byzantine; so when the Persian overcame the Byzantine, the idolaters rejoiced and the Muslims were sad; and Quraish said to the Muslims: We will defeat you as have the Persian defeated the Byzantine;

therefore, this soora was revealed.



3 c The Byzantines.

3 d Over the Persians.



4 e Three to seven years.

4 f When the Byzantines will defeat the Persians.



5 g Because the Byzantines are people of Bible, and they will overcome the Persians that are associaters worshipping the Fire.




6 h He means by them the disbelievers of Mecca.

6 i That what We have told them is true, because of their ignorance about the truth.




7 j It means: They know what appears to their eyes, that is the materials, but they do not know about the spirituals, as in His saying be glorified in the next part of the aya:

7 k It means: They are heedless of the world of souls (or the Afterlife), and they do not know that the perpetual life is the Next Life, and that the life in the World is only a productive cultivation field for the Next Life.



[9] 8. Have they not contemplated within themselves [that] God created not the heavens and the earth a and everything b between them but with the true [promise of destroying them], and for a destined end [of them. c]

And truly, many of mankind are unbelievers in the meeting with their Lord d.


[10] 9. Do they not travel throughout the earth to see [the ruins and know about] the end of those before them e, who were stronger than these [pagan Arabs], they had cultivated the land [for agriculture f] and civilized it g more than these h have civilized it; their messengers did come to them with the manifest signs i [but they denied the messengers and We destroyed them.] God did not wrong them j, but they were used to wrong themselves.


[11] 10. Then evil was the consequences to those [disbelievers] who dealt [with the believers] in evilk, because they denied the signs of God l and made a jest of themm.


[12] 11. It is God Who initiates the creation [from the dust] then returns it back [to the dust], then you [all] will be brought back to Him. n


8 a i.e. the planets including the earth.

8 b Like moons, meteorites, meteors and comets.

8 c i.e. and He made for them an appointed time when their life will end, which is Doomsday.

8 d i.e. they deny the world of souls [: the Afterlife], the sending of souls to the Next Life, and the Judgment.

An aya similar to this has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 6: 154.



9 e Those who denied the messengers, and how We terminated them, so that their habitations remained empty and none inhabited them afterwards.

9 f And turned its soil upside down for planting trees

9 g i.e. they made in it, constructions like houses, mansions, clubs and others.

9 h Meccans and the associaters among the Arabs in the time of the Prophet.

9 i Indicating their truthfulness.

9 j With that chastisement and ruining.



10 k It means: Their outcome was the bad or evil life, evil livelihood and evil home in the Next Life.

Similar to this in meaning is His saying be glorified in the Quran 20: 124, which means:

(But whoso turns away from My admonition, then there will be for him a hard living [in the Afterlife])

So this will be in the Barzakh world or the Afterlife, while on Doomsday he will be in the Fire.

10 l It means: This was their recompense because they denied the signs (or revelations) of God.

10 m In addition to the denial.



11 n i.e. your souls will be brought back for accounting and rewarding in the world of souls: the ether world.



[13] 12. On the day when the Hour [of Doom] will take place, the guilty will [despair and will completely] lose [God's mercy.]


[14] 13. No intercessors they had amongst their associates a, and they even became unbelievers in their associates b.


[15] 14. And on the day when the Hour [of Doom] will occur; on that day they will separate [into two divisions: a party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze.]


[16] 15. As for those who believed and worked righteous [deeds], they will be delighted in a meadow c [in Paradise.]


[17] 16. But as for those who disbelieved, denied Our signs [of revelation], and [denied] the meeting of the Next Life; such, in the torment d, will be arraigned.






13 a As they claimed in the life of the World, that their associates will intercede for them.

13 b It means: When they died, they discovered that they were wrong by their taking the associates [to God], therefore, they disbelieved in them in the Afterlife (or the Barzakh World.)

And for this reason, the tense came in the past: that is (They even became unbelievers.)





15 c i.e. In one of the meadows of Paradise.






16 d So (such, in the torment, will be arraigned), but not for the torment; because they will be tormented from the day of their death till Doomsday, and they will be arraigned for the Gathering-together, suffering of the punishment without being relieved of it; it means: they well go from the chastisement of the Barzakh (or the Afterlife) to the chastisement of Doomsday.



[Then God be glorified taught us to glorify Him, and He reminded us to such glorification, and said:]

[18] 17. So glorify God [O people] in your evening time and in your morning time a.


[19] 18. The praise [is due] to Him in the heavens and the earth b, alike at night and in your noon time c.


[20] 19. He produces the animate out of the inanimate, and produces the inanimate out of the animate, and gives life to the earth [with the rain] after its death [with the drought], and thus shall you [people] be brought out [from the earth to the space to the Gathering-together on Doomsday.] d




17 a It means: Glorify Him day and night; the meaning: Always glorify Him continuously.




18 b It means: It is a duty of the inhabitants of the planets and the earth, to praise God.

18 c It means: Glorify Him also at night time and at noon time. The meaning: Glorify Him when you see any sign, and praise and thank Him for every bounty you have.




19 d The meaning: As does He produce the animate out of the inanimate, He brings you out of your bodies following their death, and from the dead land in which there is no plant. The addressing is to souls.

An aya similar to this has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 3: 27.



[21] 20. And of His signs is this: He created you from earth a; and, behold, you are human beings, widely dispersing [throughout the earth.]


[22] 21. And of His signs is this: [that] He has created for you, of yourselves [likeness], wives to whom you may repose b, and has made between you c [mutual] affection and mercy d.

Surely, in that [inclination and affection] are [indicative] signs [of Gods might] to a people who contemplate [in Gods creatures and then receive admonition.]


[23] 22. And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth e, and the difference of your tongues f and colors g.

Surely, in that [difference] are signs [indicative of God's might and wisdom] to those who are aware [of this might and wisdom.]


[24] 23. And of His signs is your sleeping by the night and [by] the day, and your seeking after His bounty h.

Surely, in [all] that i are signs j to people who hear [the word of God k.]


[25] 24. And of His signs [indicating that He is One] is this: He shows you the lightning [and you] fear [of the thunderbolt] and hope [for the rain]; and He sends down [rain] water from the sky, by which He revives the land after its death [with the drought.]

Surely, in [all] that [lightning, cloud and rain] are signs [indicating God's might and wisdom] to a people who think l.


[26] 25. And of His signs is this: that the heaven m and the earth carry out [their designed functions] by His command [and wisdom], then when the [angel Israfil] will call you: [O guilty ones], then from the earth you shall come forth n.


20 a Because life as a whole forms in the earth, but it takes many stages and phases from earth or dust to plant to fruits to nutrition to semen, then it will go to the womb of the female, then it will be a fetus, which will grow; therefore, the essential substances are the dust (or earth) and the water.



21 b i.e. to incline to them and find comfort.

21 c i.e. between the husband and his wife.

21 d So that there will be a firm friendship between you, and no discord may occur between you.



22 e i.e. the planets including the earth.

22 f It means: the difference of your languages and voices, so that no voice of anyone of you may be identical with the voice of others in spite of the large number of creatures.

22 g It means: and the difference of your colors, which are four: the white race, the black, the yellow and the red; so that none of you is identical with anyone of millions of other people.



23 h It means: seeking after the livelihood by day time and the work during it.

23 i i.e. the sleeping by night and the seeking after livelihood by day.

23 j Indicating Gods might and wisdom.

23 k And comply with His commands.



24 l i.e. they use their minds and think about such phenomena.




25 m The heaven means the gaseous layers which are above the earth, and the earth means as all of the earths [or the planets.]

The meaning: The planets together with their gaseous layers carry out, in the space, their designed movements of the systematic circling around the sun, so that the four seasons will be formed, as do they carry out their axial rotations to form the day and night.

And as such will years and time pass away, while these planets keep up their movements, which they will not stop until their destined end is due, when the solar system tears up and Doomsday occurs. And all that is according to His command and wisdom.

25 n And come up to Us: to the Gathering-together, for Judgment and Requital.

This is confirmed by His saying be glorified in the Quran 17: 52, which means:

(On the day when he [: the angel Israfil] will call you [for the Judgment and Requital] and you will respond, with His praise, and will think that you tarried [in the World] only for little time.)

It means: You tarried on the earth only for a little time.

The Caller is the angel Israfil who will call them to come up to the Gathering togetehr while they being ethereal souls.



[27] 26. To Him belongs [as a slave] whoever is in the heavens and the earth. All are devoutly submissive to Him. a


[28] 27. And it is [God] Who initiates the creation [from the ether] then returns it back [to the ether world: the world of souls], and this [returning back to the world of souls] is very easy to Himb; the highest parable of glory [: 'Mighty as a monarch'] is [due] to Him in the heavens and the earth c; He is the All-Mighty d, the Most Wise e.


26 a i.e. exclusively devoted to God, submissive to Him with slavery; and even if some of them does not submit himself to Him in the life of the World, he will certainly submit himself to God in the Next Life.




27 b That is because the formation of souls inside bodies essentially requires many years, while their separation from bodies by death happens in one minute.

27 c i.e. in the planets including the earth.

27 d In His kingdom.

27 e In His creation.



[29] 28. He sets for you, [associaters], an example from your own a; do you have out of [the slaves: males and females] whom your right hands own any associates in the [wealth, property and others] that We provide for you, so that you are equal about it b: you fear them [in disposal and inheritance] as do you fear each other [in the disposal in wealth and in consulting your partners]?c

Thus do We detail the revelations d for a people who discern [the truth. e]


[30] 29. But the wrong-doers have followed their vain desires [in the association], without [certain] knowledge [derived from any heavenly book, and without reasoning]; who will then guide those whom God has left astray? f

Such [wrong-doers] will have no helpers g.


28 a i.e. from your own customs and traditions.

28 b The meaning: Do you agree that your slaves share with you in your property and wealth, so that you will be equal [to them] in the ownership and position so that they then will not show respect and reverence to you?

28 c So in case you do not accept that your slaves be associates with you in the possession, then how do you ascribe associates to God out of His servants and creatures?

28 d i.e. We explain them in details.

28 e And distinguish it from the falsehood.






29 f It means: None will guide the one whom God misguides on account of His wronging people, and he will have the chastisement of the Fire in the Next Life.

29 g To help them and avert the chastisement away from them.



[When Gods messenger marched with his tremendous army, on the day of conquering Mecca, this aya was revealed to him:]

[31] 30. So set your purpose [O Muhammad, in this journey, while you aim to go to Mecca] to work according to the religion of Abraham, the Hanief, and his law, which God bids people a to follow.

[Therefore, there should be] no changing of God's creation [from His aim of creating them.] b

Such [religion] is the religion [of Abraham], the guardian [on his sons and followersc]; but most people know not [the truth about it, and so they follow a religion other than it.]


[32] 31. Turning [repentant] to [God]; and ward off His [punishmentd], establish the prayers, but be not of [those] associaters:


[33] 32. Of those e who parted [concerning] their religion [of the monotheism f], and became [many] sects g; each party rejoicing in what [idols and doctrines of falsehood] they had. h


30 a i.e. God bid Abrahams followers to follow his religion and law. Abrahams followers are the Muslims in fact, and his religion is the monotheism.

30 b i.e. Therefore, do not alter Gods creation away from the aim for which He created them, which is the worship, as in His saying be glorified in the Quran 51: 56, which means:

(I created not the genie-kind and the man-kind but only to worship Me [alone.])

30 c Like the guardian on orphans.



31 d And do not contradict His commands.



32 e Jews.

32 f After Solomon's death.

32 g i.e. many parties and sects; these were the Jews who parted from the religion and divided after Solomons death: so they worshipped the idol Baal, and some of them worshipped Ashtoreth, others worshipped the star Sirius, and still others worshipped the two calf statues made for them by Jeroboam, the son of Nebat.

32 h The meaning: Dont be, in the future, like them, O Muslims: so that you will change your religion, worship the descendents of Ali, the sheikhs and the graves of your imams.

And you will vow your vows to them, build high their graves, seek their help when you stand up and sit down, and ask your needs from them, sanctify their graves, sacrifice for them, burn the incense, enkindle candle sticks, make feasts for them.

Moreover, you will do obsequies and lamentation for them, and beat on your breasts, scratch your faces, tear the bosom [: the opening of your shirts], and injure your heads [with the swords] so the blood will issue, in addition to weeping tears [over them.]

And therefore, God will be wrathful against you and give your enemy hand over you, in addition to those who will not show any mercy to you; and you will then pray Him to remove your affliction, but He will not answer your prayer and will not hear your supplication, until you suffer the humiliation and enslavement in recompense of your acts.



[34] 33. When affliction a befalls people, they pray their Lord [to remove their affliction], and they turn [repentant and supplicant] to Him [alone.]

Then if He offers to them some of His grace b; behold, a party of them will [return to] associate [others] with their Lord.


[35] 34. That they may deny [the bounties] that We have given them c;

[Therefore, God be glorified threatened them with punishment if they do not forsake the association, and He said:]

so enjoy yourselves [with your associates d and your life of the World]; for you will surely know [the consequences of your association after your death e.]


[36] 35. Or have We revealed to them an authority [: a book from heaven on one of their men f], and he speaks of that they associate with Him? g


33 a Like disease, poverty or calamity.

33 b By curing them of the disease, enrich them after the poverty and save them from the affliction.





34 c It means: their aim from the association is to deny Our bounty, in order to ascribe it to their associates, so they say: These bounties came to us by the blessing and good fortune of our associates.

34 d i.e. enjoy seeing them.

34 e When you will go to the world of souls (or the Afterlife.)





35 f Inviting them to the association, and so they associated?

35 g It means: So, that man, on whom such book was revealed, commanded them to associate according to that book? No, We didnt reveal to them any book with that, and We didnt command them to sanctify the humans, neither to sanctify the angels nor to worship the stones.

This is like His saying be glorified in the Quran 37: 156-157, which means:

(Or have you any manifest warrant [derived from any heavenly book?] Then produce your [heavenly] book, if you are truthful [in your claim].)

So He explained that the warrant [which I have translated as the authority] is the book.



[37] 36. And in case We offer to people some of Our grace a, they rejoice therein; but in case an evil [thing] afflicts them as the consequence of their own deeds b, behold they [then] despair [of God's mercy.]


[38] 37. See they not that God outspreads and restricts the provision, to anyone [of His servants] He pleases c ?

Surely, this [outspreading and restricting] implies signs [indicating God's might] for a people who believe [therein.]



36 a Like the bounty of health after illness, abundance of provision after poverty, security after fear or fertility after drought.

36 b Like wrong-doing and corruption.

It means: If a calamity afflicts them, they will despair of Gods mercy.





37 c To try them by that to see will they be grateful or ungrateful.



[39] 38. And render to the kindred their due rights, as [also] to the needy and the wayfarer a; that b is better [for you with God, than giving that to the rich, but you should give]: to those who seek [to dwell in the ethereal paradises c in] the neighborhood of God; and it is these who will prosper [in the Next Life.]


38 a This has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 17: 26.

38 b Expenditure to the poor and needy.

38 c Under the throne of God.



[40] 39. Whatever [money] you give in usury [or interest], in order that it may increase on [other] people's wealth a, it will not increase with God b.

But that which you give in charity [to the poor and needy], seeking [Paradise in] the neighborhood of God; then such [givers of alms] will receive their recompense manifold.


[41] 40. It is God Who created you [people], then provided for you, then [by night] makes you die [through sleeping], then [by day] quickens you [through awaking.] c

Is there among your associates, anyone who can do anything of that? d

Glory be to Him! High be He exalted above that they associate [with Him!]



39 a So that you will take from him more than what you lend to him.

39 b And you will not be rewarded but will be punished according to it.




40 c So the death here means the sleep, and the life is the waking from sleep. The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 6: 60, which means:

(It is He Who takes your souls [out of your bodies] by night,

and knows all that [evil] you [people] have already committed by day,

then He sends you back again [to your bodies by day] that a term appointed [for you] be accomplished.)

So the life which God mentioned in this aya means the material life.

40 d It means: Can your idols, and those whom you worship apart from God, create, provide the provision, revive and kill?

Therefore, if you know they cannot do anything of that, then why do you worship them, while they cannot harm nor profit.



[42] 41. Disturbances have spread throughout the land and the sea a, because of [the wrong-doing, disbelief and hypocrisy] that the hands of people have earned;

so that He may let them taste [the punishment of] some of their [evil] deeds;

in order that they may desist [from their wickedness and disbeliefb.]


41 a The corruption in the land is by: harmful insects which destroy trees, fruits and agricultural products; in addition to the [medical] insects which carry the infection from the patient to the healthy: like flies, mosquitoes, fleas, lice, ticks, bedbugs and others. Moreover, the harmful animals which destroy the agricultural products and cause economic loss like mice, foxes, termites (or woodworms) and others. And the poisonous animals like snakes, scorpions, wasps and others. Then the corruption caused by microbes which cause diseases, blind the eye, disfigure the face and kill the living beings.

On the other hand, the corruption in the sea is manifested by microbes [and worms] which exist in the water of rivers and ponds to cause diseases like Bilharzia, Dysentery, Cholera and others. In addition, the floods cause much harm in property, fields and people.

Therefore, the word land is related to the dry land in general, and the word sea is related to water bodies in general: rivers, seas, lakes, marshes and others.

So all such corruption, which has appeared in the land and in the sea, is because of the disbelief, hypocrisy and wrong-doing of people.

41 b And so they may turn to God in repentance from their sins.



[43] 42. Say [O Mohammed, to these associaters]: "Journey throughout the earth [to see the ruins], then behold how was the end of those [unbelievers] that were before [who denied]; most of them were associaters [like yourselves, so We exterminated them because of their disbelief, association and denial of the messengers.]"


[44] 43. So set your purpose [O Mohammed] to the religion a [of Abraham], the guardian b [on his sons and followers], before there comes a day which God will not avert c; on that day shall they be sundered [into two partiesd.]


[45] 44. Whoso disbelieves, [the evil consequences of] his unbelief shall be against him; and whosoever works righteous [deeds] for themselves they are preparing provision e [for their Next Life.]


[46] 45. That, with His favor, [God] may reward those who believe and work righteous [deeds]; for He loves not the ungrateful [to His bounties, but He loves the grateful.]


43 a The meaning: O Mohammed, arise and go along to your people and invite them to the religion of Abraham.

43 b The guardian of orphans is the one who grows them and takes care about their affairs and teaching until they become adults.

43 c It means: There will be no turning back of that day afterwards. It is Doomsday when the entire solar system will tear up, so that there will not be any day and night on earth and there will be no return of the day and night, because the earth will tear up to become meteorites.

43 d One party will be in Paradise; they are the pious believers. And another party will be in the Blaze; they are the deniers, of Gods messengers, the erring from the way of the truth.






44 e i.e. they prepare furniture and stuffs for the Next life; it means: The dresses and furniture which they give to the poor and needy: they will find before them in the Next Life, but it will be the spiritual not the material.



[47] 46. Among His signs is that He sends the winds, as heralds of glad tidings [of the rain],

giving you [after the rain] a taste of His mercy a, -

[and] that the ships may sail [on rivers and seas] according to His rules b [and on account of the profuse rain]

and that you may seek of His bounty c:

in order that you may be grateful [to God for your gaining wealth by means of the trading in travels.]


[48] 47. And before you, [Mohammed], We did send, [many] messengers to their people, and they brought them the manifest signs [of their truthfulness, but they denied the messengers and were guilty in regard to them]; so We took vengeance upon the guilty; and it was ever a duty, incumbent upon Us, to help the believers [and so We helped them.]


[49] 48. It is God Who looses the winds, which will stir up [and collect] clouds; which He spreads in the sky d as He pleases, and makes them [many] pieces; and you [man] see the rain drops [close to the ground] issue out of the midst of the [clouds.] e

And when He gives [the rain] to whomsoever of His servants He will, behold, they rejoice [with its coming down.]


[50] 49. Though before [the rain], even [a long time] before [the rain] was sent down upon them, they were in despair [of its coming down.]


[51] 50. Look then to the marks of God's mercy, how He quickens the land [with the rain; so the grass and trees will grow] after its death [with the drought, and being devoid of any plant]; surely That [Who quickened the land with the rain] is [He] Who will quicken the dead f, and He is Most Able over all things.


[52] 51. But if we should send a [stormy] wind, [instead of rain, on their crops] and should they see it yellow [from dryness], they would after that continue in their infidelity.


[53] 52. But you [Mohammed] cannot make the dead to hear g, nor can you make the deaf to hear the call when they turn their backs and go away [from you.]


[54] 53. Nor can you [Mohammed] guide the blind aright, out of their error [in religion]; you can only make to hear those who believe in Our revelations, and they are submissive [to the truth.]




46 a It means: to let you taste of the fruits produced because of such rains.

46 b i.e. according to His will and management.

46 c By embarking on ships for trading.





















48 d i.e. in the space; it means: in the lower atmosphere of the earth [i.e. the troposphere.]

48 e Because the new cloud coming up from the earth, together with the hot wind, both will melt the snow scattered in the atmosphere, and it will come down as rain.















50 f i.e. He will dignify the believers after their degradation, and will help them after their little number, and will enrich them after their poverty. Therefore, the life here implies the dignity.














52 g It means: the associaters do not understand, because they are like the dead cannot hear what you say to them.



[55] 54. God is He Who created you out of weakness a, then made strength b after the weakness, then made weakness and elderly after the strength.

He creates whatever [of the weak and strong] He likes.

He is the All-Knowing [about the management of His creatures], the Most Able [to do whatever He likes.]


[56] 55. And on the day when the Hour [of mans death] issues, the guilty will swear that they tarried [in the life of the World] not more than one of the hours [of time]; thus were they used to lie [in the life of the World.]


[57] 56. But those [angels and prophets] endowed with knowledge and faith will say: "You tarried [in the life of the World] according to [the age] that God decreed [for you] until the day of [your] sending forth [from your bodies to the world of souls]; for this [day of your death] is the day of the sending forth [of your souls to the Afterlife], but you used not to know [the truth.]"


[58] 57. Then on that day, the apology of wrong-doers will not avail them, nor will they be allowed to comply [with Gods good pleasure c.]



54 a Which is the semen.

54 b Which will be after birth, when the child will gradually get stronger until he becomes a man.


























57 c i.e. they will not be asked to turn to that which pleases God.

This has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 16: 84.



[59] 58. Surely We have propounded for people, in this Quran, of every kind of examples [or parables] a; and indeed if you [Mohammed] come to them with a miracle [: one of that which they suggested to you], the unbelievers would surely say: "You [Muslims] are only trying to disprove [our religion.]"


[60] 59. Thus [will it be, as do they say about the disproving of their religion; and] God seals upon the hearts of those b knowing not.


[61] 60. So forbear patiently [the denial of your people, and their mockery about you]; for surely the promise of God is true [to help you and your religion]; so let not those excite you, who have not certain belief [about your prophet-hood, and they do not believe in the Next Life.] c



58 a So as to make it understandable and explicit, but they closed their ears lest they should hear it.






59 b They were those who had not any book to know according to it; they were the people of Mecca.

Similar to this, is His saying be glorified in the Quran 2: 113, which means:

(Similarly, those [pagan Arabs] who know not [the Scripture] say like their saying.)




60 c The meaning: Let them not insert doubt within your heart by means of denying and mocking you, and that they said: The one who brought the revelation to you is one of genies; and as such you may doubt about your apostle-hood.


By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 30 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)


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[37] 36.

[38] 37.

[39] 38.

[40] 39.

[41] 40.

[42] 41.

[43] 42.

[44] 43.

[45] 44.

[46] 45.

[47] 46.

[48] 47.

[49] 48.

[50] 49.

[51] 50.

[52] 51.

[53] 52.

[54] 53.

[55] 54.

[56] 55.

[57] 56.

[58] 57.

[59] 58.

[60] 59.

[61] 60.