Soora 31


[1] (In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)


The meaning


More explanation

[2] 1. Alif, Lam, Miem.

[These abbreviated Arabic letters mean:]

(Recite To them, O Mohammed!) a


[3] 2. Those b are the signs [of revelation] of the Book c of wisdom [: the Quran.]


[4] 3. [As] guidance and mercy to those who do good d [to the weak and the needy.]


[5] 4. Who performs the prayers, pay the Zakat [alms] and are certain of the Next Life [and of Paradise.]


[6] 5. Such [depend] on guidance from their Lord. Such are the successful [in the Next Life.]


1 a This has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 2: 1.




2 b It points out to the sooras [: chapters] and ayat revealed before the revealing of this soora, and the Prophets companions wrote on the parchments.

2 c i.e. the Quran which includes wisdom and admonition.




3 d For they are guided by the Quran to the way of the truth; because God be glorified loves the good-doers and so He guides them to a standard and straight way.



[Nadhir the son of Harith said to the associaters of Mecca: In case Mohammed tells you about the story of Aad and Thamood, I myself can tell you about the story of Rostom and Isphandyar and the tales of the kings of Persia. So they listened to his words and forsook the listening to the Quran; therefore, this aya was revealed concerning him:]

[7] 6. And of people there is he who purchases idle tales a, to misguide [people away] from God's way b, without relying on any knowledge [derived from any heavenly book], and take [all his acts against the Quran] in play [against the Islam.]

For such [speaker and listeners] there awaits a humiliating chastisement [in the Next Life.]


[8] 7. And when Our revelations [of the Quran] are rehearsed to him, he turns away in arrogance; as if he did not hear them: as if there was impairment of hearing in both his ears; so give him the tidings of a painful chastisement [which he will suffer after death.]






6 a i.e. he substitutes the admonitions of the Quran with the [vain or idle] talks (with which man amuses himself); aiming from that to misguide people.


6 b i.e. from Gods religion and law.



[9] 8. For those, who believe and work righteous [deeds], will be the Gardens of Prosperity [in the Next Life.]


[10] 9. To abide therein forever a true promise this of God a: He is the All-Mighty [in His kingdom], the Most Wise [in His acts.]


[11] 10. He created the [gaseous] heavens without pillars which you will see [and know about in the future] b,

and He cast on the earth firm [mountains which heavily landed on the earth], lest it sways irregularly with you c,

and He scattered abroad throughout it all kinds of moving animals.

And We sent down out of the sky [rain] water, and so caused to grow in [the earth] of every excellent kind [of trees and fruits], having excellent [scene and delicious taste.]


[12] 11. Such d is God's creation; show me then, [O associaters], what others e [to which you pray], apart from Him, have created.

But actually the wrong-doers are in error [away from the truth], so obvious [to every intelligent and thinking one.]







9 a And He will not go back on it.





10 b It is the blueness which we see in the space; which is the condensation of gases on each other: the lighter of them will go upwards, and the heavier will be below it, so that seven gaseous layers were formed, which are the habitation of the jinn [: the genie-kind.]

10 c And in order to move regularly along in its orbit, and to spin around itself with its axis inclination.










11 d This points out to what have just been mentioned of: the heavens, the earth, mountains, the rain, trees and fruits.

11 e He means: their gods which they worshipped.



[13] 12. We did give wisdom a to Luqman b [: Tobias];

[We revealed to him:] "Give thanks to God c;

for whosoever gives thanks, he only gives thanks for [the advantage of] his own soul d;

but whosoever is ungrateful, then surely God is Absolute [in independence of the thanksgiving e], [and] Worthy of Praise [for His bounties.]"


[14] 13. And [mention to them, O Mohammed], when Luqman [: Tobias] said to his son, admonishing him: "My son, associate none with God; for, surely, the association [with God] is a tremendous wrong."


[15] 14. And We have recommended man [Luqman: Tobias]and anyone else, to be kind] to his parents; his mother bore him with travail upon travail, and his weaning is [to be after the passing] of two years.

[We have recommended him:] "Show gratitude to Me f and to your parents g; for the final resort will be to Me [in the Next Life h.]"


[16] 15. "But if they try [their best] to make you [man] associate with Me that which you do not know [to be true], then do not obey them [concerning the association]; yet accompany with them kindly in [the affairs of] the World [and be gentle with them.]

And follow the way of those who turn devoutly to Me i.

Then to Me, you [all] shall return [after death], and I shall inform you of what you were doing [in the life of the World.]"


[Then again God be glorified mentioned the admonition:]

[17] 16. [Then Luqman: Tobias said to his son:] "My son, eventhough [the righteous deed j] be [as trivial] as the weight of a grain of mustard k, and [it be] in a rock [which you remove from the road of pedestrians] or in the heavens l [by looking at stars at night to recognize the correct way m] or in the earth n, God will bring it forth [written in your book of deeds o]; surely, God is Most Kind p, Most Aware q."


[18] 17. "My son, perform the prayers, enjoin the right, forbid the wrong and forbear patiently that which afflicts you; for such [good manners, with which I am admonishing you] are among the firm morale of the am'rs [: the prophets and the angels.]" r


[19] 18. "Incline not your cheek humbly to people s, nor walk 'haughtily and boastfully' on earth t; for God loves not anyone deceptive and boastful u."


[20] 19. "Seek reformation [between people] with your pace, and lower your voice [when you speak v]; for the most hideous of voices is that of the donkey."


12 a That is the knowledge and admonition which God gave him on account of his righteousness and piety.

12 b He was one of the Children of Israel, of the tribe of Naphtali; he resided in Palestine in Galilee, in the time of Rehoboam son of Solomon.

His name was Tobias, and in fact God surnamed him in the Quran as Loqman, because [as the word in Arabic implies] he used to feed the poor and needy and to put the morsel in their mouths, and that was according to his kind heart and good conduct.
The name of his wife was Anna who bore for him a son whom he named in his same name [Tobias] also.

He was pious and a righteous man, enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, and commanding his people to obey God.

His story is mentioned in details in the Torah collection [the Bible: the Old Testament], the Book of Tobias (or Tobiah) according to his name.

12 c For that He guided you, and gave to you the wisdom and the righteous son.

12 d It means: the reward of his gratitude will be for himself, and he will get more blessings of God.

The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 14: 7, which means:

("If you are thankful, I will surely increase you[r blessing.])

It means: I will increase your bounties, in addition to what bounties you already have.

12 e Of the grateful.



14 f The gratitude to God is by praising, obedience and expending in His way.

14 g The gratitude to parents is by kindness, communication with them, complying with their obedience.

14 h i.e. To Me you will return after death, when I will recompense you according to your acts.



15 i i.e. work according to the way of the obedient worshippers.



16 j This points out to His saying be glorified in the beginning of this soora:

([As] guidance and mercy to those who do good [to the weak and the needy.])

16 k The mustard are very minute seeds, black in color, and are corrosive; its leaves are large like the leaves of the radish; its leaves contain vitamin C; the leaves are used with salt as pickled vegetables to be eaten; its taste is sharp like the garden peppergrass; it is of two kinds: the white mustard and the black mustard.

16 l The indication of this is His saying be glorified in the Quran 16: 16, which means:

(And [He made on earth] waymarks; and by the stars they are guided [by night to their places and to the country at which they aim.])

Or you may guide one who questions you about the pre-dawn time of the allowed eating and drinking in Ramadan fasting and so you tell him in order to eat at that hour, or to pray the dawn prayers.

16 m To which you guide the travellers who lost the way.

16 n That you guide those missing the correct way, or you feed someone hungry, or dress someone naked or other righteous works.

16 o And reward you for it.

16 p To those that are kind to the poor and needy.

16 q About those expending [out of their wealth] on the orphans and needy.

An aya similar to this has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 21: 47.



17 r i.e. such good manners of behavior are among the good manners of the prophets having the firm will and determination, and among the good manners of angels and their holding firmly with them; and by such manners and works they reached to their position before God.


18 s This is a parable of humiliation, which means: Do not incline your neck humbly to people, so as to ask of them something they may give you, but ask of God all your need.

God be glorified said in the Quran 63: 5, which means:

(And when it is said to them: "Come [now and apologize] to the messenger of God, and he will ask forgiveness [of God] for you", they twist their heads [in aversion]); i.e. they twist their heads away from you.

18 t Like the walking of the haughty and proud man.

The meaning: Do not degrade yourself with asking when you ask others, and do not boast with your alms-giving.

18 u i.e. he boasts to people with the money that he gives.



19 v i.e. do not speak loudly.

The following are some of the recommendations of Luqman [Tobias] to his son, as in the Bible, Book of Tobias 4: 6-20

[6] All the days of your life have God in your mind: and take heed you never consent to sin, nor transgress the commandments of the Lord our God.

[7] Give alms out of your substance, and turn not away your face from any poor person: for so it shall come to pass that the face of the Lord shall not be turned from you.

[8] According to your ability be merciful.

[9] If you have much, give abundantly: if you have a little, take care even so to bestow willingly a little.

[10] For thus you will store up to yourself a good reward for the day of necessity.

[11] For alms deliver from all sin, and from death, and will not suffer the soul to go into darkness.

[12] Alms shall be a great confidence before the Most High God, to all them that give it.

[13] Take heed to keep yourself, my son, from all fornication, and beside your wife never endure to know a crime.

[14] Never suffer pride to reign in your mind, or in your words: for from it all perdition took its beginning.

[15] If any man has done any work for you, immediately pay him his hire, and let not the wages of your hired servant stay with you at all.

[16] Never do to another what you would hate to have done to you by another.

[17] Eat your bread with the hungry and the needy, and with your garments cover the naked.

[18] Lay out your bread, and your drink upon the burial of a just man, and do not eat and drink thereof with the wicked.

[19] Seek counsel always of a wise man.

[20] Bless God at all times: and desire of him to direct your ways, and that all your counsels may abide in Him.

Therefore see, dear reader, did Mohammed copy such phrases from the Torah [the Old Testament] as do some associaters claim, while he was an illiterate man who did not read or write? Moreover, he was an Arabian man who did not know Hebrew or its writing, and the Torah has not been translated to Arabic until our present time.

So had he copied from the Torah [the Old Testament], then his copy would have come literally without any change?

And most importantly are the names, for if it was any copy, then he would mention the names as they are, and he would not have mentioned the surnames which even are not mentioned in the Torah [the Old Testament] itself:

For none did know before that Tobias is surnamed: Luqman [in the Quran] because he fed the poor and took the morsel out of his mouth to put it in the mouth of the poor. This actually is a parable of the Arab about the generosity, so they say: That man took the morsel out of his mouth and gave it to that poor man, and he stayed hungry but satiated others.

None also knew that Saul is surnamed Taloot [in the Quran] because he was tall; none also knew that Prophet Elia or Elijah is surnamed Idries [in the Quran] because he taught the Torah [the Old Testament.]

Arent these some of Gods telling to His messenger, to be a scientific miracle indicating his truthfulness?

God be glorified said in the Quran 20: 133, which means:

(But hasnt it come to them the clear explanation of [the story of the past nations] that is in the former Scripture [: the Torah, the Psalms and the Gospel?])



[21] 20. Have you, [Muslims], not seen that God has subjected to you what a is in the [gaseous] heavens and what b is in the earth, and has lavished on you His bounties, [both] apparentc and unapparent?

But among people [the disbelievers] are those who dispute about [the religion of] God, without knowledge [concerning what he says]d, and without guidance [of God], and without any [heavenly] book, lightening [the way.] e


[22] 21. And when it is said to them: "Follow that which God has revealed [to His messenger]", they say: "No, but we will follow such [religion and doctrines] as we found our fathers [holding.]"

[So God be glorified replied to their words, and said:]

[Dont they consider and fear that] it may be Satan does invite them to the chastisement of the blaze g?


[23] 22. Whoever submits himself wholly to God h, and [moreover, he] is kind [to people particularly the poor and the needy among them], has [indeed] grasped a most firm handhold i, and to God [all] souls will return [after death; and He will recompense them according to their deeds.]


20 a Wind, cloud and rain.

20 b Rivers, seas, beasts and cows.

20 c The apparent bounties are the bounties of the life of the World, like health, wealth, children and others. While the unapparent bounty is the bounty of the Islam and guidance to the righteous way; for the truth about the Islam religion will not be exposed to the people of other religions and will not appear visible unless in the Next Life, when they will know that it is the best religion.

20 d And without any logical proof.

20 e It means: without any book with clear proofs.




21 g That is by letting them stick to following their fathers blindly.











22 h It means: Whoever complies with Gods religion and turns his heart to God.

22 i i.e. he holds the firm hand-hold which is not detachable. So this is a parable that God be glorified said, and He likened the associater to one drowning in the sea, and the Islam religion like a ship, sailing on sea, having handles on its sides, and so anyone holds with one of such handles, he will be safe of drowning.



[24] 23. But whosoever disbelieves, then let not his disbelief grieve you [Mohammed]; [for] they will return to Us [after death] and We shall inform a them about what they did; God is All-Knowing about [the secrets] of [their] hearts.


[25] 24. We let them enjoy [themselves with wealth and children in the life of the World] for a little [time], then We shall compel them [in the Next Life] to a rigorous doom.


[26] 25. If you [Mohammed] ask them [: the associaters]: "Who created the heavens and the earth b?" they will say: "God [created them.]"

Say [O Mohammed]: "Praise be to God c ! But most of them do not recognize [the truth d.]"


[27] 26. To God belong all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth e; and surely God is the Absolutely Independent [of the worship of disbelievers], the Worthy of Praise f.



23 a i.e We shall punish them, and remind them about their bad acts.






25 b i.e. the planets including the earth.

25 c Who has guided me, out of my people, given me the Book, and taught me that which I had not known before.

25 d Because they follow their fathers blindly.











26 e As possession and slaves.

26 f On account of His bounties to His creatures.



[When the revelation to the Prophet was suspended for [many] days, because he did not say: If God will, I shall give you the answer tomorrow.

The associaters said: Mohammed, the words of God have finished! Your Lord has deserted you; He has disliked you!

Therefore, this aya was revealed in reply of their words and mockery:]

[28] 27. And were the trees, in the earth, pens [to write with], and the sea [ink], with seven more seas in addition to ita, the words of God would not end b; surely, God is All-Mighty c, Most Wise d.


[29] 28. Your creation and the sending forth of your [souls to the Next Life] are [in relation to His might] only as [the creation and the sending forth of] one single soul; God is All-Hearing e, All-Knowing f.





27 a i.e. after the depletion of the first sea in writing, there were other seven seas in addition to the first sea, as ink to write the words of God with it.

27 b It means: the pens would break up and the water of the seas would finish in writing, and the words of God would not finish.

27 c In His kingdom, so He will take revenge on associaters.

27 d In sending the messengers [or apostles] to people.

An aya similar to this one has been explained in the interpretation of the Quran 18: 109.




28 e Of your words.

28 f About your acts.



[When the Muslims saw that victory against the associaters was delayed for them in the beginning, His saying be glorified was revealed:]

[30] 29. Have you [Mohammed] not seen how God causes the night to pass into the day, and causes the day to pass into the night a, and has subjected the sun b and the moon c; each moving [in its orbit] to an appointed term d; and that God is All-Aware of what you [Muslims] do? e


[31] 30. [All] that f [clearly indicate that] it is God Who is the True [Creatorg], and that what they serve apart from Him is the untrue h, and that it is God Who is the Most High, the Great.


29 a i.e. each one of them is introduced into the other, because of the earth spinning around its axis.

The meaning: Dont hasten, Mohammed, about victory; for days and months will pass and victory will shortly come.

This is confirmed by His saying be glorified in the Quran 2: 214, which means:

(So that the messenger [of God] and those who believed with him said: 'When will the help of God come!?'

[The messenger would answer them:] 'Surely, the help of God is approaching.')

29 b For the day light and for other advantages.

29 c To give light by night, and for counting days and months.

29 d It means: Till a stated time in which their lives will end and their movements will stop.

It means: To everything there is a stated time and an appointed end, even the sun and moon each has an appointed time [of the ending of their lives]; therefore, [Mohammed], do not hasten; for victory, like other things, has also an appointed time.

29 e And God is not unaware of you, Muslims, and will shortly help you with victory.



30 f It points out to what preceded concerning the formation of the night and day, and the subjection of the sun and moon.

30 g Of this universe, and that He deserves the worship.

30 h And they did not create anything, and they do not deserve to be worshipped.



[32] 31. Have you [Mohammed] not seen that ships run on the sea with God's gracea, and that He may show you [some] of His signs b.

That c indeed includes signs [of Gods might] to everyone patient and grateful [of Gods bounties.]


[33] 32. When waves enshroud them like covering clouds d, they call on God [to save them from the drowning], making their praying devoted exclusively to Him e; but when He has delivered them [from the sea] safely to the land behold some of them f are reformers g , [but most of them deny Our signs] and none denies Our signs but every deceitful and ungrateful h [one.]


[34] 33. O mankind, safeguard [yourselves] against [the punishment of] your Lord, and fear [the punishment of] a day when no parent can avail anything for his begotten [son or daughter], nor can any begotten [son or daughter] avail anything for his parent.

Surely the promise of God [about the judgment, the punishment and the reward] is true i; so let not the Worldly life deceive you [with its ornamentation, and so divert you from remembering God], nor let [Satan:] the deceiver deceive you [by inviting you] to [disobey] God.


31 a And His favor on you, in order that you may travel by ships for trading.

31 b In the sea, and the marvels of His creatures.

31 c Traveling and marvels of the sea.





32 d It means: If the associaters embarking on ships, are overwhelmed by the waves of the sea and by the winds, and all such waves and winds cover them like the cloud.

32 e They were Amru, the son of Aas, and his companions when they went to Abyssinia seeking after the Muslims: Jaafar, the son of Abu Talib, and his companions.

32 f i.e. of those who embarked on the ship and He saved them from the drowning.

32 g The reformer among the group of Amru, the son of Aas, was his wife Fatima, the daughter of Yasar: when she started to praise the religion of the Muslims, and let her husband desire about that, then she converted and stayed in Abyssinia together with the Muslims and did not return to Mecca with her husband.

This word was explained in the interpretation of the Quran 5: 69.

32 h i.e. ungrateful to Gods bounties.





33 i i.e. a promise which God will not break, and He will not go back in it.

Therefore, be ready for your Next Life by doing every righteous act.



[35] 34. Surely, God: with Him is the knowledge of the hour [of man's death]a; and He sends down the rain [to whomever He likes]; and He knows what b is in wombs; and no soul knows what [good or evil] it shall earn to-morrow; and no soul knows in what land it shall die; surely, God is All-Knowing, All-Aware c.


34 a i.e. God knows at what time man will die.

34 b Whether it be male or female, single or multiple [: twins.]

34 c So that He makes for the pious the most proper of these five points.


By God's help, the interpretation of the soora 31 of the Quran is completed;

So (praise be to God: Lord of the worlds.)

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